Twenty-five clinical scales and one validity scale, Guardedness, is used in the assessment. The clinical scales are Rigid Type, Alcohol, Drugs, Substance Abuse Driving Violations, Job Difficulties, Trouble with the Law and Society, Antisocial Attitudes, Hyperactivity, Absence Abuse, Illness Concerns, Treatment Programs, Anxiety, Type "A", Phobic Personality, Lack of Assertiveness, Obsessive Personality, Depression, Loner Type, Interpersonal Difficulties, Family Conflicts, Sexual Concerns, Spouse/Mate Concerns, Undue Suspiciousness, Unusual Experiences/Thoughts.
The IPI was developed from over 2,500 pre-employment interviews with public safety officer candidates. The items were designed to detect stress reactions in the context of law enforcement as well as deviant behavior patterns.
The IPI was developed in part to counter the use of psychopathology tests (such as the MMPI) for use as public safety selection tests.
Cortina, J., Doherty, M., Schmitt, N., Kaufman, G., Smith, R. (1992). The "Big Five" Personality Factors in the IPI and MMPI: Predictors of Police Performance. Personnel Psychology, Inc., 45, 119-140.
Detrick, P., Chibnall, J. (2002). Prediction of Police Officer Performance with the Inwald Personality Inventory. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 17, 9-17.
Keyser, Daniel J., and Sweetland, Richard C. (eds.) (1987). Test Critiques: Volume VI. Kansas City: Test Corporation of America.
TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF INTEGRITY TEST SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES: AN ITEM-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF SEVEN TESTS
Jan 01, 2003; A judgmental sort of 798 items from 7 paper-and-pencil integrity tests produced 23 thematic composites. Patterns of correlations...