Atomic Energy Agency, International (IAEA), independent intergovernmental organization established in 1957 under the aegis of the United Nations to promote safe, secure, and peaceful uses of atomic energy. It reports annually to the UN General Assembly and, when appropriate, to the Security Council. Its headquarters are in Vienna; liaison and regional offices are located in Geneva, New York, Toronto, and Tokyo. It also runs or supports four research centers and scientific labs. The IAEA has three main aims: nuclear verification and security, safety, and technology transfer. It may purchase and sell fissionable materials, offer technical assistance for peaceful nuclear energy uses, and establish safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear materials to military use. It inspects for compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty, a power strengthened as a result of the findings of Iraqi violations in 1992. More recently, the organization has been involved in taking measures against the threat of nuclear terrorism. The IAEA is made up of a general conference, consisting of representatives of all member states, a board of governors of 35 members, six deputy directors general, and a secretariat of some 2,200 individuals, all headed by a director-general. There are 151 member nations. In 2005 the IAEA and its director-general, Mohamed ElBaradei at the time, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for working to prevent the use and spread of nuclear weapons and to ensure that peaceful uses of nuclear energy were safe.
Geophysical Year, International: see International Geophysical Year.
Centennial Exhibition, International, held in Philadelphia from May to Nov., 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. The buildings, in Fairmount Park, included the Main Building, covering 20 acres (8 hectares), Machinery Hall, Agricultural Hall, Horticultural Hall, and Memorial Hall, many state buildings, and buildings of 37 foreign countries. The total number of persons attending in 159 days was almost 10 million. This was the first of a series of world's fairs that the United States was to hold, and it set a high standard, exhibiting in graphic manner the technical advances and industrial growth of the nation. Memorial Hall, a Renaissance structure of granite, became part of the Pennsylvania Museum of Art.
arbitration, international, judicial process by which international disputes, usually between states, are settled peacefully, generally through the use of a tribunal acting as a court of law. Such a tribunal may consist of an individual (e.g., an impartial head of state, the pope, the secretary-general of the United Nations), a neutral country, or an organization such as the Hague Tribunal. The parties to the dispute pick the arbitrating body themselves and are obligated to accept the terms of settlement. If the parties do not agree in advance to follow the decision reached by a third party, but merely agree to consider it, the process is termed conciliation (see mediation). Arbitration was practiced by the Greek city-states, and in the Middle Ages high ecclesiastical authorities were called upon to settle controversies. With the development of the modern system of nation-states, however, arbitration was less frequently used until the 19th cent. when the settlement by arbitration of the famous Alabama claims case between the United States and Great Britain brought this practice back into general use. Great advances have been made since then, most notably in the establishment of a Permanent Court of Arbitration (the Hague Tribunal) by the Hague Conferences. Functions analogous to arbitration were performed by the Permanent Court of International Justice (see World Court) under the League of Nations and have now been transferred to its successor, the International Court of Justice. Today many treaties contain clauses providing for arbitration or conciliation of disputes; the most notable of these is the Charter of the United Nations (Article 33).

See J. H. Ralston, International Arbitration from Athens to Locarno (1929); C. M. Bishop, International Arbitral Procedure (1930); K. S. Carlston, The Process of International Arbitration (1946); H. W. Briggs, The Law of Nations (2d ed. 1952); J. L. Brierly, The Law of Nations (6th ed. 1963); A. Cox, Prospects for Peacekeeping (1967); R. Fisher, Improving Compliance with International Law (1981).

International, any of a succession of international socialist and Communist organizations of the 19th and 20th cent.

The First International

The First International was founded in London in 1864 as the International Workingmen's Association. Karl Marx was a key figure in inspiring its creation and was later chosen as its leader. Its goal was to unite all workers for the purpose of achieving political power along the lines set down by Marx and Friedrich Engels in the Communist Manifesto (1848). Marx viewed the International as a vehicle for revolution, but it played only a minor role in the revolutionary Commune of Paris (1871). Power struggles within the organization greatly weakened it, and the clash between Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin led to its complete disintegration (1876).

The Second International

By 1889, socialist parties had been founded in numerous European nations and the need for another International was felt. The Second, or Socialist, International, was founded in that year at a Paris congress, and it later set up permanent headquarters in Belgium, with Emile Vandervelde as its president. This International was predominantly political in character, and the German and Russian Social Democratic parties were its most important elements. Its early leaders included Engels, August Bebel, Karl Kautsky, and Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov.

Despite the ideological schisms that plagued socialism during this period, the Second International did much to advance labor legislation and strengthen the democratic socialist movement. It failed, however, in what was perhaps its primary concern—the prevention of war. On the outbreak (1914) of World War I nearly all the socialist parties supported their individual governments, and the Second International collapsed.

The Third International (Comintern)

After the victory of Communism in the Russian Revolution (1917), a Third, or Communist, International was created (1919). Under the leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, this Communist International, or Comintern, hoped to foster world revolution. The Comintern was not generally acceptable to socialist labor groups, however, and was dissolved in 1943.

After World War II, the Comintern was replaced (1947) by the Communist Information Bureau, or Cominform, which aided the seizure of power by the Communists in Czechoslovakia. Because of world political pressures the Cominform lost its influence and power after 1948 and became a vehicle for Soviet propaganda. It was disbanded in 1956.

The Socialist International

After World War I, the Second International was revived (1919) by moderate socialists, and a Vienna, or Two-and-a-Half, International was formed (1921) from splinter leftist groups that spurned both the Second International and the Comintern. In 1923 the Second and Vienna internationals merged to form the Labor and Socialist International, which lasted until the beginning of World War II. After the war this International was continued under the name of the Socialist International, and it exists today. Among its tenets are support for internationally integrated economic systems and civil rights and opposition to left-wing and right-wing totalitarianism and all forms of exploitation and enslavement.


See J. Joll, The Second International, 1889-1914 (1955); M. M. Drachkovitch, ed., The Revolutionary Internationals, 1864-1943 (1966); J. Braunthal, History of the International (2 vol., 1967). See also bibliographies under communism and socialism.

date line, international: see international date line.
This article is about Democracy Watch (International), based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. For other groups and publications named Democracy Watch, see Democracy watch.

Democracy Watch (International) is a service organization founded in 2003, based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA with subsidiary offices in the Washington D.C., area. Its current executive chairperson is Scott Perry.


The chartered purpose of Democracy Watch (International) is to monitor, record and disseminate information about functional democracy in as many nations throughout the world as possible.


The groups executive directors stated that, by the evaluation of research material, including the dispatch of election monitoring volunteers from time to time, and by applying a predefined set of test standards to the information so obtained in an objective and uniform manner, the group works to shed a greater light and awareness on the global process of democratization.


Democracy Watch (International) web-site states that it is:

  • Non-Profit
  • Non-Aligned (accepting no funding from governmental or political organizations).
  • Purely informational; it is "the only non-aligned election/democracy monitoring organization of its kind in existence."

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