Definitions

Internal Translator

Timeline of programming languages

This is a timeline of historically important programming languages.

Legend

(Entry ) means a non-universal programming language
* means a unique language (no direct predecessor)

Predecessor(s) Year Name Chief developer, Company

Pre 1950

* ~1837 Analytical Engine order code Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace
* 1943-5 Plankalkül (concept) Konrad Zuse
* 1943-6 ENIAC coding system John von Neumann, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert, Herman Goldstine after Alan Turing
ENIAC coding system 1946 ENIAC Short Code Richard Clippinger, John von Neumann after Alan Turing
ENIAC coding system 1946 Von Neumann and Goldstine graphing system (Notation) John von Neumann and Herman Goldstine
ENIAC coding system 1947 ARC Assembly Kathleen Booth
Analytical Engine order code 1948 CPC Coding scheme Howard Aiken
ENIAC coding system 1948 Curry notation system Haskell Curry
ENIAC Short Code 1949 Brief Code John Mauchly and William F. Schmitt
ENIAC Short Code 1949 C-10 Betty Holberton
CPC Coding scheme 1949 Seeber coding scheme (concept) Robert Seeber

1950 onward

1950s

Brief Code 1950 Short Code William F Schmidt, A.B. Tonik, J.R. Logan
ARC 1950 Birkbeck Assembler Kathleen Booth
Plankalkül 1951 Superplan Heinz Rutishauser
* 1951 ALGAE Edward A Voorhees and Karl Balke
Short Code 1951 Intermediate Programming Language Arthur Burks
EDSAC 1951 Regional Assembly Language Maurice Wilkes
Aiken CPC system 1951 Boehm unnamed coding system Corrado Boehm
Plankalkül 1951 Klammerausdrücke Konrad Zuse
Short Code 1951 OMNIBAC Symbolic Assembler Charles Katz
* 1951 Stanislaus (Notation) Fritz Bauer
EDSAC 1951 Whirlwind assembler Charles Adams and Jack Gilmore at MIT Project Whirlwind
EDSAC 1951 Rochester assembler Nat Rochester
* 1951 Sort Merge Generator Betty Holberton
C-10 and Short Code 1952 A-0 Grace Hopper
Aiken CPC 1952 Autocode Alick Glennie after Alan Turing
SORT/MERGE 1952 Editing Generator Milly Koss
* 1952 COMPOOL RAND/SDC
* 1953 Speedcoding John Backus
* 1953 READ/PRINT Don Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckman
* 1954 Laning and Zierler system Laning, Zierler, Adams at MIT Project Whirlwind
Glennie Autocode 1954 Mark I Autocode Tony Brooker
Speedcoding 1954-1955 FORTRAN "0" (concept) Team led by John W. Backus at IBM
A-0 1954 ARITH-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC
A-0 1954 MATH-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC
* 1954 MATRIX MATH H G Kahrimanian
* 1954 IPL I (concept) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
A-0 1955 FLOW-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC
1955 BACAIC M. Grems and R. Porter
FORTRAN, A-2 1955 PACT I SHARE
Boehm 1955-6 Sequentielle Formelübersetzung Fritz Bauer and Karl Samelson
Laning and Zerler 1955-6 IT Team led by Alan Perlis
1955 PRINT IBM
IPL I 1958 IPL II (implementation) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
IPL 1956-1958 LISP (concept) John McCarthy
FLOW-MATIC 1957 COMTRAN Bob Bemer
FORTRAN 0 1957 FORTRAN "I" (implementation) John W. Backus at IBM
MATH-MATIC 1957-1958 UNICODE Remington Rand UNIVAC
* 1957 COMIT (concept)
FORTRAN I 1958 FORTRAN II Team led by John W. Backus at IBM
FORTRAN, IT and Sequentielle Formelübersetzung 1958 ALGOL 58 (IAL) ACM/GAMM
IPL II 1958 IPL V Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN 1959 COBOL (concept) The Codasyl Committee
ALGOL 58 1959 JOVIAL Jules Schwartz at SDC
IPL 1959 LISP (implementation) John McCarthy
1959 TRAC (concept) Mooers

1960s

ALGOL 58 1960 ALGOL 60
FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN 1960 COBOL 61 (implementation) The Codasyl Committee
* 1961 COMIT (implementation)
FORTRAN II 1962 FORTRAN IV
* 1962 APL (concept) Iverson
ALGOL 58 1962 MAD Arden, et al.
ALGOL 60 1962 SIMULA (concept)
FORTRAN II, COMIT 1962 SNOBOL Griswold, et al.
ALGOL 60 1963 CPL Barron, Strachey, et al.
SNOBOL 1963 SNOBOL3 Griswold, et al.
ALGOL 60 1963 ALGOL 68 (concept) van Wijngaarden, et al.
ALGOL 58 1963 JOSS I Cliff Shaw, RAND
MIDAS 1964 MIMIC H. E. Petersen, et al.
CPL, LISP 1964 COWSEL Burstall, Popplestone
ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN 1964 PL/I (concept) IBM
FORTRAN II, JOSS 1964 BASIC Kemeny and Kurtz
FARGO 1964 IBM RPG IBM
1964 Mark-IV Informatics
1964 TRAC (implementation) Mooers
1964? IITRAN
JOSS 1965 TELCOMP BBN
JOSS I 1966 JOSS II Chuck Baker, RAND
FORTRAN IV 1966 FORTRAN 66
LISP 1966 ISWIM (Concept) Landin
ALGOL 60 1966 CORAL66
CPL 1967 BCPL Richards
FORTRAN, TELCOMP 1967 MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital
* 1967 APL (implementation) Iverson
ALGOL 60 1967 SIMULA 67 (implementation) Dahl, Myhrhaug, Nygaard at Norsk Regnesentral
SNOBOL3 1967 SNOBOL4 Griswold, et al.
PL/I 1967 XPL W. M. Mckeeman, et al. at University Of California Santa Cruz, California
J. J. Horning, et al. at Stanford University
DIBOL 1968 DIBOL-8 DEC
COWSEL 1968 POP-1 Burstall, Popplestone
1968 FORTH (concept) Moore
LISP 1968 LOGO Papert
CRT RPS 1968 MAPPER Unisys
* 1968 REFAL (implementation) Valentin Turchin
ALGOL 60 1968 ALGOL W Niklaus Wirth, C. A. R. Hoare
ALGOL 60 1969 ALGOL 68 (implementation) van Wijngaarden, et al.
ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN 1969 PL/I (implementation) IBM
BCPL 1969 B Ken Thompson, with contributions from Dennis Ritchie
1969 PPL Thomas A. Standish at Harvard University
1969 SETL Jacob T. Schwartz at Courant Institute
1969 TUTOR University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

1970s

1970? FORTH (implementation) Moore
POP-1 1970 POP-2
ALGOL 60, ALGOL W 1970 Pascal Wirth, Jensen
Pascal, XPL 1971 Sue Holt et al. at University of Toronto
SIMULA 67 1972 Smalltalk Xerox PARC
PL/I, ALGOL, XPL 1972 PL/M Kildall at Digital Research
B, BCPL, ALGOL 68 1972 C Ritchie
* 1972 INTERCAL
2-level W-Grammar 1972 Prolog Colmerauer
Pascal, BASIC 1973 COMAL Christensen, Løfstedt
1973 ML Robin Milner
Pascal, Sue 1973 LIS Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull
BASIC 1974 GRASS DeFanti
Business BASIC 1974 BASIC FOUR MAI BASIC Four Inc.
SETL 1975 ABC Leo Geurts and Lambert Meertens
LISP 1975 Scheme Sussman, Steele
BASIC 1975 Altair BASIC Gates, Allen
ALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL 1975 CS-4 Brosgol at Intermetrics
Pascal 1975 Modula Wirth
Smalltalk-72 1976 Smalltalk-76 Xerox PARC
Speakeasy-2 1976 Speakeasy-3 Stanley Cohen,Stephen Pieper at Argonne National Laboratory
C, FORTRAN 1976 Ratfor Kernighan
APL, PPL, Scheme 1976 S John Chambers at Bell Laboratories
* 1977 FP John Backus
* 1977 Bourne Shell (sh) Bourne
Fortran 1977 IDL David Stern of Research Systems Inc
MUMPS 1977 Standard MUMPS
SNOBOL 1977 Icon (concept) Griswold
ALGOL 68, LIS 1977 Green Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, CS-4 1977 Red Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, 1977 Blue Goodenough et al. at SofTech for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, 1977 Yellow Spitzen et al. at SRI International for US Dept of Defense
* 1978? MATLAB Moler at the University of New Mexico
Algol60 1978? SMALL Brownlee at the University of Auckland
Ingres 1978 SQL aka structured query language IBM
* 1978 VISICALC Bricklin, Frankston marketed by VisiCorp
Modula 1979 Modula-2 Wirth
PL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2 1979 REXX Cowlishaw
C, SNOBOL 1979 AWK Aho, Weinberger, Kernighan
SNOBOL 1979 Icon (implementation) Griswold
* 1979 Vulcan dBase-II Ratliff

1980s

C, SIMULA 67 1980 C with classes Stroustrup
BASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research 1980-1981 CBASIC Gordon Eubanks
Smalltalk, C 1982 Objective-C Brad Cox
BASICA 1983 GW-BASIC Microsoft
Green 1983 Ada CII Honeywell Bull
C with Classes 1983 C++ Stroustrup
BASIC 1983 True BASIC Kemeny, Kurtz at Dartmouth College
COBOL 1983? ABAP SAP
sh 1984? Korn Shell (ksh) David Korn
Forth, Lisp 1984 RPL Hewlett-Packard
ML 1984 Standard ML
dBase 1984 CLIPPER Nantucket
LISP 1984 Common Lisp Guy Steele and many others
1984 Redcode A.K. Dewdney and D.G. Jones
Pascal 1985 Object Pascal Apple Computer
dBase 1985 PARADOX Borland
InterPress 1985 PostScript Warnock
BASIC 1985 QuickBASIC Microsoft
BASIC 1986 GFA BASIC Frank Ostrowski
1986 Miranda David Turner at University of Kent
1986 LabVIEW National Instruments
SIMULA 67 1986 Eiffel Meyer
1986 Informix-4GL Informix
C 1986 PROMAL
INFORM 1986 CorVision Cortex
Smalltalk 1987 Self (concept) Sun Microsystems Inc.
* 1987 HyperTalk Apple
C, sed, awk, sh 1987 Perl Wall
Modula-2 1987 Oberon Wirth
MATLAB 1988 Octave
Awk, Lisp 1988 Tcl Ousterhout
BASIC 1988 STOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos
REXX 1988 Object REXX Simon C. Nash
Ada 1988 SPARK Bernard A. Carré
APL 1988 A+ Arthur Whitney
* 1987 Mathematica Wolfram Research
BASIC/Z 1987 Turbo Basic Robert 'Bob' Zale
Turbo Pascal, Object Pascal 1989 Turbo Pascal OOP Hejlsberg at Borland
Modula-2 1989 Modula-3 Cardeli, et al. DEC and Olivetti
Turbo Basic 1989 PowerBASIC Robert 'Bob' Zale

1990s

STOS BASIC 1990 AMOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos
Oberon 1990 Object Oberon H Mössenböck, J Templ, R Griesemer
APL, FP 1990 J Iverson, R. Hui at Iverson Software
Miranda 1990 Haskell
Object Oberon 1991 Oberon-2 Hanspeter Mössenböck, Wirth
ABC, ALGOL 68, Icon, Modula-3 1991 Python Van Rossum
Prolog 1991 Oz Gert Smolka and his students
1991 Q
QuickBASIC 1991 Visual Basic Alan Cooper, sold to Microsoft
Turbo Pascal OOP 1992 Borland Pascal
ksh 1993? Z Shell (zsh)
Smalltalk 1993? Self (implementation) Sun Microsystems Inc.
Forth 1993 FALSE Wouter van Oortmerssen
* 1993 WinDev PC Soft
HyperTalk 1993 Revolution Transcript
HyperTalk 1993 AppleScript Apple
APL, Lisp 1993 K Arthur Whitney
Smalltalk, Perl 1993 Ruby Yukihiro Matsumoto
Lua 1993 Lua Roberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-Rio
C 1993 ZPL Chamberlain et al. at University of Washington
Self, Dylan 1993 NewtonScript Walter Smith
Common Lisp 1994 ANSI Common Lisp
Lisp 1994 Dylan many people at Apple Computer
Perl 1994 PHP Rasmus Lerdorf
LPC, C, µLPC 1994 Pike Fredrik Hübinette et al. at Linköping University
Forth 1994 ANS Forth Elizabeth Rather, et al
Borland Pascal 1995 Borland Delphi Anders Hejlsberg at Borland
1995 ColdFusion Allaire
C, SIMULA67 OR C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C 1995 Java James Gosling at Sun Microsystems
Self, Java 1995 LiveScript Brendan Eich at Netscape
Lisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML 1996 Curl David Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman at MIT
LiveScript 1996 JavaScript Brendan Eich at Netscape
APL, Perl 1996 Perl Data Language (PDL) Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, and Christian Soeller
S 1996 '''R Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka
REXX 1996 NetRexx Cowlishaw
1996 Lasso Blue World Communication
Oberon-2 1997 Component Pascal Oberon microsystems, Inc
Joule, Original-E 1997 E Mark S. Miller
Scheme 1997 Pico Free University of Brussels
Smalltalk-80, Self 1997 Squeak Smalltalk Alan Kay, et al. at Apple Computer
JavaScript 1997 ECMAScript ECMA TC39-TG1
Smalltalk, APL, Objective-C 1997 F-Script Philippe Mougin
C++, Standard C 1998 Standard C++ ANSI/ISO Standard C++
Prolog 1998 Erlang Open Source Erlang at Ericsson
AWK, Perl, Unix shell 1998 Pikt Robert Osterlund (then at University of Chicago)
JAVA, SQL 1998 DASL (BOS) Bob Goldberg and Ludovic Champenois at Sun Microsystems
Web 2.0 IDE & ALM 1999 WebDev PC Soft
DSSSL 1999 XSLT W3C
Game Maker 1999 Game Maker Language (GML) Mark Overmars
JAVA, HTML 1999 DASL (AUS) Bob Goldberg, Bruce Daniels, Peter Yared, Yury Kamen, and Syed Ali at Sun Microsystems

2000s

Java 2000 Join Java G Stewart von Itzstein
FP, Forth 2000 Joy von Thun
C, C++, C#, Java 2000 D Walter Bright at Digital Mars
Ada, C++, Lisp 2000 XL Christophe de Dinechin
C, C++, Java, Delphi 2000 C# Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft(ECMA)
C, C++, Java, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scheme 2000 Ferite Chris Ross
Java 2001 AspectJ Xerox PARC
Self, NewtonScript 2002 Io Steve Dekorte
C#, ML, MetaHaskell 2003 Nemerle University of Wrocław
Joy, Forth, Lisp 2003 Factor Slava Pestov
Smalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml 2003 Scala Martin Odersky
Lua 2003 Squirrel Alberto Demichelis
BASIC 2004 FreeBASIC Andre Victor
Mobile Development 2004 WinDev Mobile PC Soft
* 2004 Subtext Jonathan Edwards
Python, C# 2004 Boo Rodrigo B. de Oliveira
Object Pascal, C# 2004 Oxygene (formerly Chrome) RemObjects Software
Java 2004 Groovy James Strachan
BASIC 2004 ThinBasic Eros Olmi thinBasic community
Objective Caml, C#, Haskell 2005 F# Don Syme at Microsoft Research
* 2005 Corn
Haskell 2006 Links Phil Wadler, University of Edinburgh
* 2006 Kite Mooneer Salem
C#, ksh, Perl, CL, DCL, SQL 2006 Windows PowerShell Microsoft
C#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang 2007 Fan Brian Frank, Andy Frank
APEX 2007 APEX Salesforce.com
C# 2007 Vala GNOME
* 2007 LOLCODE Adam Lindsay
C, R 2008 PCASTL Philippe Choquette

References

See also

External links

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