An insertion sequence
(also known as an IS
, an insertion sequence element
, or an IS element
) is a short DNA
sequence that acts as a simple transposable element
. Insertion sequences have two major characteristics: they are small relative to other transposable elements (generally around 700 to 2500 bp
in length) and only code for proteins implicated in the transposition
activity (they are thus different from transposons
, which also carry accessory genes such as antibiotic resistance genes). These proteins are usually the transposase
which catalyses the enzymatic reaction allowing the IS to move, and also one regulatory protein which either stimulates or inhibits the transposition activity. The coding region in an insertion sequence is usually flanked by inverted repeats
. For example, the well-known IS911
(1250 bp) is flanked by two 36bp inverted repeat extremities and the coding region has two genes partially overlapping orfA
, coding the transposase (OrfAB) and a regulatory protein (OrfA).
A particular insertion sequence may be named according to the form ISn
, where n
is a number
, etc.); this is not the only naming scheme used, however. Although insertion sequences are usually discussed in the context of prokaryotic genomes
, certain eukaryotic
DNA sequences belonging to the family of Tc1/mariner
transposable elements may be considered to be insertion sequences.
In addition to occurring autonomously, insertion sequences may also occur as parts of composite transposons; in a composite transposon (also known as a "complex transposon"), two insertion sequences flank one or more accessory genes, such as an antibiotic resistance gene (e.g. Tn10, Tn5). Nevertheless, there exist another sort of transposons, called unit transposons, that do not carry insertion sequences at their extremities (e.g. Tn7).
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