Explosives are any substance or article, including a device, which is designed to function by explosion or which, by chemical reaction within itself is able to function in a similar manner even if not designed to function by explosion (unless the article is otherwise classed under a provision of 49CFR).
- Division 1.1 Explosives: Division 1.1 consists of explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously. (* Add compatibility group [A, B, C, D, E, F, G, J, L])
- Division 1.2 Explosives: Division 1.2 consists of explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard. (* Add compatibility group [B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L])
- Division 1.3 Explosives: Division 1.3 consists of explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or, both but not a mass explosion hazard. (* Add compatibility group [C, F, G, H, J, K, L])
- Division 1.4 Explosives: Division 1.4 consists of explosives that present a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package. (* Add compatibility group [B, C, D, E, F, G, S])
- Division 1.5 Blasting Agents: Blasting agents consist of very insensitive explosives. This division comprises substances which have a mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
- Division 1.6 Explosives: Division 1.6 consists of extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. This division comprises articles which contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
- A: Primary explosive substance (1.1A, 1.2A)
- B: Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective features. Some articles, such as detonators for blasting, detonator assemblies for blasting and primers, cap-type, are included, even though they contain primary explosives (1.1B, 1.2B, 1.4B)
- C: Propellant explosive substance or other deflagrating explosive substance or article containing such explosive substance (1.1C, 1.2C, 1.3C, 1.4C)
- D: Secondary detonating explosive substance or black powder or article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, in each case without means of initiation and without a propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more effective protective features. (1.1D, 1.2D, 1.4D, 1.5D)
- E: Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance without means of initiation, with a propelling charge (other than one containing flammable liquid, gel or hypergolic liquid) (1.1E, 1.2E, 1.4E)
- F: Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance with its means of initiation, with a propelling charge (other than one containing flammable liquid, gel or hypergolic liquid) or without a propelling charge (1.1F, 1.2F, 1.3F, 1.4F)
- G: Pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance, or article containing both an explosive substance and an illuminating, incendiary, tear-producing or smoke-producing substance (other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid) (1.1G, 1.2G, 1.3G, 1.4G)
- H: Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus (1.2H, 1.3H)
- J: Article containing both an explosive substance and flammable liquid or gel (1.1J, 1.2J, 1.3J)
- K: Article containing both an explosive substance and a toxic chemical agent (1.2K, 1.3K)
- L: Explosive substance or article containing an explosive substance and presenting a special risk (e.g., due to water-activation or presence of hypergolic liquids, phosphides or pyrophoric substances) needing isolation of each type (1.1L, 1.2L, 1.3L)
- N: Articles containing only extremely insensitive detonating substances (1.6N)
- S: Substance or article so packed or designed that any hazardous effects arising from accidental functioning are limited to the extent that they do not significantly hinder or prohibit fire fighting or other emergency response efforts in the immediate vicinity of the package (1.4S)
49 CFR 172-101 lists substances by class and group in its HAZMAT Table
This page is a summary of the HAZMAT Class 1 page at Environmental Chemistry
- 49 CFR 173.50 (U.S. Code)
- 49 CFR 173.52 (U.S. Code)
- 49 CFR 177.848 (g) (U.S. Code)
- 49 CFR 172-101 (U.S. Code)
Explosive material or substance: A solid or liquid that can produce a quantity of gas under high pressure so rapidly that under certain conditions surrounding exposures are subjected to a strong dynamic stress
Deflagration: Vigorous burning with subsonic flame propagation
Detonation: An exothermic chemical reaction which propagates through reactive material at supersonic speed
Brisance In addition to strength, explosives can display a second characteristic, which is their shattering effect (brisance). The rapidity with which an explosive reaches its peak pressure is a measure of its brisance. Maximum pressure is attained so rapidly that a shock wave is formed, and the net effect is to shatter material surrounding or in contact with it. Research Development Explosives (RDX) are the some of the most brisant explosives and forms the base of military explosives, used commercially in demolition and fireworks manufacture.
High explosive A powerful chemical explosive that produces gas at a very high rate
Low explosive An explosive with a low rate of combustion
Primary explosives A high explosive which is extremely sensitive to mechanical shock, friction, and heat. It will respond by burning rapidly or detonating. The best-known primary compound is nitroglycerin.
Secondary explosives A low explosive which is relatively insensitive to heat and shock and is usually initiated by a primary high explosive (detonator) to set them off. TNT and gunpowder fall into this category.
Tertiary explosives Also called blasting agents. These are so insensitive to shock that they cannot be reliably detonated by practical quantities of primary explosive, and instead require the use of a secondary explosive to set them off. Examples include an ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixture (ANFO) and slurry or "wet bag" explosives. These are primarily used in large-scale mining and construction operations.
Detonator A device used to trigger an explosive device
Improvised Explosive Device (IED) It is a “homemade” device that is designed to cause death or injury by using explosives alone or in combination with toxic chemicals, biological toxins, or radiological material. IEDs can be produced in varying sizes, functioning methods, containers, and delivery methods. IEDs can utilize commercial or military explosives, homemade explosives, or military ordnance and ordnance components