The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
is a systematic
method of naming inorganic chemical compounds
as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC). Ideally, every inorganic compound
should have a name from which an unambiguous formula
can be determined. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
The names "caffeine" and "3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione" both describe the same chemical. The systematic name encodes the structure and composition of the caffeine molecule in some detail, and provides an unambiguous reference to this compound, whereas the name "caffeine" just names it. These advantages make the systematic name far superior to the common name when absolute clarity and precision are required. However, even professional chemists will use the non-systematic name almost all of the time, because caffeine is a well-known common chemical with a unique structure. Similarly, H2O is most often simply called water in English, though other chemical names do exist.
- Single atom anions are named with an -ide suffix: for example, H− is hydride.
- Compounds with a positive ion (cation), the name of the compound is simply the cation's name (usually the same as the element's), followed by the anion. For example, NaCl is sodium chloride, and CaF2 is calcium fluoride.
- Cations able to take on more than one positive charge are labeled with Roman numerals in parentheses. For example, Cu+ is copper(I), Cu2+ is copper(II). An older, deprecated notation is to append -ous or -ic to the root of the Latin name to name ions with a lesser or greater charge. Under this naming convention, Cu+ is cuprous and Cu2+ is cupric. For naming metal complexes see the page on complex (chemistry).
- Oxyanions (polyatomic anions containing oxygen) are named with -ite or -ate, for a lesser or greater quantity of oxygen. For example, NO2− is nitrite, while NO3− is nitrate. If four oxyanions are possible, the prefixes hypo- and per- are used: hypochlorite is ClO−, perchlorate is ClO4−,
- The prefix bi- is a deprecated way of indicating the presence of a single hydrogen ion, as in "sodium bicarbonate" (NaHCO3). The modern method specifically names the hydrogen atom. Thus, NaHCO3 would be pronounced "sodium hydrogen carbonate".
Positively charged ions are called cations and negatively charged ions are called anions. The cation is always named first. Ions can be metals or polyatomic ions. Therefore the name of the metal or positive polyatomic ion is followed by the name of the non-metal or negative polyatomic ion. The positive ion retains its element name whereas for a single non-metal anion the ending is changed to -ide.
Example: sodium chloride, potassium oxide, or calcium carbonate.
When the metal has more than one possible ionic charge or oxidation number the name becomes ambiguous. In these cases the oxidation number of the metal ion is represented by a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the metal ion name. For example in uranium(VI) fluoride the oxidation number of uranium is 6. Another example is the iron oxides. FeO is iron(II) oxide and Fe2O3 is iron(III) oxide.
An older system used prefixes and suffixes to indicate the oxidation number, according to the following scheme:
| Oxidation state
|| Cations and acids
|| Anions |
|| hypo- -ous
|| hypo- -ite |
|| -ite |
|| -ate |
|| per- -ic
|| per- -ate |
Thus the four oxyacids of chlorine are called hypochlorous acid (HOCl), chlorous acid (HOClO), chloric acid (HOClO2) and perchloric acid (HOClO3), and their respective conjugate bases are the hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate and perchlorate ions. This system has partially fallen out of use, but survives in the common names of many chemical compounds: the modern literature contains few references to "ferric chloride" (instead calling it "iron(III) chloride"), but names like "potassium permanganate" (instead of "potassium manganate(VII)") and "sulfuric acid" abound.
Naming simple ionic compounds
An ionic compound is named by its cation followed by its anion. See polyatomic ions
for a list of possible ions.
For cations that take on multiple charges, the charge is written using Roman numerals in parentheses immediately following the element name) For example, Cu(NO3)2 is copper(II) nitrate, because the charge of two nitrate ions (NO3-1) is 2 × −1 = −2, and since the net charge of the ionic compound must be zero, the Cu ion has a 2+ charge. This compound is therefore copper(II) nitrate. In the case of cations with a 4+ oxidation state, the acceptable format for the Roman numeral 4 is IV and not IIII.
The Roman numerals in fact show the oxidation number, but in simple ionic compounds (i.e., not metal complexes) this will always equal the ionic charge on the metal. For a simple overview see , for more details see selected pages from IUPAC rules for naming inorganic compounds
List of common ion names
- Cl− chloride
- S2− sulfide
- P3− phosphide
- NH4+ ammonium
- H3O+ hydr-oxonium
- NO3− nitrate
- NO2− nitrite
- ClO− hypochlorite
- ClO2− chlorite
- ClO3− chlorate
- ClO4− perchlorate
- SO32− sulfite
- SO42− sulfate
- HSO3− hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite)
- HCO3− hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate)
- CO32− carbonate
- PO43− phosphate
- HPO42− hydrogen phosphate
- H2PO4− dihydrogen phosphate
- CrO42− chromate
- Cr2O72− dichromate
- BO33− orthoborate
- AsO43− arsenate
- C2O42− oxalate
- CN− cyanide
- SCN− thiocyanate
- MnO4− permanganate
are ionic compounds that have absorbed water. They are named as the ionic compound followed by a numerical prefix and -hydrate
. The numerical prefixes used are listed below:
For example, CuSO4 · 5H2O is "copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate".
Naming molecular compounds
Inorganic molecular compounds are named with a prefix (see list above) before each element. The more electronegative
element is written last and with an -ide
suffix. For example, CO2
is carbon dioxide
. Although CCl4
is sometimes called carbon tetrachloride
under this rule, it is not an inorganic molecule and is more properly called tetrachloromethane. There are some exceptions to the rule, however. The prefix mono-
is not used with the first element; for example, CO2
is carbon dioxide
, not "monocarbon dioxide". Sometimes prefixes are shortened when the ending vowel of the prefix "conflicts" with a starting vowel in the compound. This makes the compound easier to speak; for example, CO is "carbon monoxide" (as opposed to "monooxide").
Acids are named by the anion they form when dissolved in water. If an acid forms an anion named ___ide
, it is named hydro___ic acid
. For example, hydro
forms a chloride
anion. With sulfur, however, the whole word is kept instead of the root: i.e.: hydro
. Secondly, anions with an -ate
suffix are formed when acids with an -ic
suffix are dissolved, e.g. chloric acid
) dissociates into chlorate
anions to form salts such as sodium chlorate
); anions with an -ite
suffix are formed when acids with an -ous
suffix are dissolved in water, e.g. chlorous acid
) disassociates into chlorite
anions to form salts such as sodium chlorite
2005 revision of IUPAC's nomenclature for inorganic compounds
See main article IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005
- Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, Recommendations 1990, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1990)