IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (ITSM) is a centralized policy-based data warehouse, generally billed as enterprise class data backup and recovery software. The software enables a user to insert objects via space management, backup, and archive tools, or to retrieve that data via similar recall, restore and retrieve methods.
This product is part of the IBM TotalStorage suite of products and is unrelated to Tivoli Framework.
ITSM maintains a relational database (limit 534GB through ITSM v5.5) and recovery log (aka transaction log, limit 13.5GB) for logging, configuration, statistical information, and object metadata. DB pages are always 4KB, and partitions every 4MB. Single row inserts only. On average, 20GB of space is consumed for every 25 million objects. Shallow directory structures utilize less TSM DB space than deeper paths. This database may generally be queried via an emulated SQL-98 compliant interface, or through undocumented SHOW, CREATE or DELETE commands.
Actual user data is managed via a cascading hierarchy of storage media presented as raw devices (UNIX), filesystem containers (Windows and Linux), streaming tape or optical media. Additionally, emulated tape from a Virtual Tape Library or EMC Centera WORM archival device are also supported. Additionally, duplicate copies of any subset of data may be created on sequential media for redundancy or offsite management.
The 5.5 release of the TSM Server is supported on AIX, HP-UX, Linux, Solaris, Windows Server, and z/OS. The current 5.5 release of the TSM Client is supported on NetWare, Mac OS, AIX, HP-UX, Linux, z/OS, Solaris, and Windows 32/64-bit.
Typically, a TSM implementation receives small files from large numbers of clients to a random access disk pool. This prevents sequential access device contention. Once the data is received, or if the pool fills, then typically, the data will spool to a smaller number of high-speed tape devices. Many other configurations are possible, and overall, TSM is highly flexible.
The most common data source for ITSM is the ITSM Backup/Archive Client, which allows backup and restore of data "selectively", "incrementally". This is generally known as "Incremental Forever" as each unique client+filespace+path+file combination is separately tracked for retention.
Further, a separate method is provided by the B/A client which is known as archive (and retrieve). This method generates groupings of objects to be retained as a single unit. This still differs from traditional full/incremental style backup products in that the files are stored separately or in smaller aggregates rather than as a monolithic image. Additionally, there is no provision for an incremental archive.
Other data injectors include policy-based hierarchical storage management (HSM) components for AIX, Linux and Windows. These allow migration of data from production disk into one or more of the TSM storage hierarchies while maintaining transparent access to that data by the use of DMAPI or NTFS reparse points.
Finally, many applications provide or are provided with TSM API connections allowing the storage of databases, mail systems, system backups and even arbitrary user data within TSM's repository. Aside from ITSM's UNIX HSM product, only the "Backup" and "Archive" management facilities are accessed through the client API.
The naming convention is to prefix every product name with "IBM Tivoli Storage Manager":
- Client aka Backup/Archive Client for most major operating systems at supported versions
- Server for most major server operating systems
- for Advanced Copy Services - Hardware based snapshots for major database backups. Formerly ITSM for Hardware.
- for Copy Services - Windows snapshots for Exchange and MSSQL.
- for Databases - An API for Oracle RMAN and a GUI & CLI tool for MSSQL backups.
- for Data retention - A zOS client to manage long-term archiving of data.
- for Enterprise Resource Planning - - Allows online backup of SAP R/3 stored in Oracle or DB2. Formerly backint developed by IBM Germany in Entwicklung by the Enterprise Service Division (ESD) as a "Support Offering" to back up SAP R/3 directly into TSM. This product was acquired by Tivoli as Tivoli Data Protection for R/3.
- for Mail - These are external applications that tie into the API for Lotus Domino (aka Notes) and Microsoft Exchange for online backups.
- for SharePoint - This is a repackaged copy of DocAve, still marketed by OEM AvePoint
- for Space Management - (HSM) for Linux and AIX. The Linux/Unix product uses the "MIGDESTINATION" hierarchy within TSM and has objects managed as "SPACEMG" types.
- for HSM for Windows - (HSM) for Windows. The Windows product is OpenStore for File Servers produced by INTERCOPE GmbH.
- for Storage Area Networks (SAN) - aka "LAN Free Storage Agent" This is a modified version of the TSM Server itself, offering no local TSM Database. Configuration is purely for server-to-server library sharing. This allows the agent to write to tapes managed by the primary TSM server without having to pass data over the network.
- for System Backup and Recovery - This is a standalone product for AIX bare metal recovery. The original name was Sysback/6000, produced by Tony Johnson in the 1990s and sold by IBM as a service offering through IBM Global Services. Sysback can back up and restore files, filesystems, volume groups, and entire systems to local or remote disk, local or remote tape, NIM servers, and TSM. Current versions can also recover systems via the files backed up using the TSM B/A client. There is a major branch of this product. When Tony Johnson left IBM in 1998, he started a company and product named Storix. Storix is feature rich and supports AIX and Linux, has a GUI management interface, and is very similar in origins to Sysback. Storix actively competes with IBM's Sysback due differing price structures and features.
Administrative functions are accessed through the IBM command line tool, via IBM's Websphere Portal application known as the "Administration Center", or via ODBC. No third party admin API clients exist at this time March, 2008.
ITSM utilizes two special purpose agents. First is the LAN-Free Storage Agent. This is a limited function TSM server which is configured as a library client and uses server-to-server communication to coordinate the use of storage resources which are configured to TSM but which are also presented to the storage agent. Usually this LAN-free and server-free backup agent is installed on the specific client; however, it is network accessible and could be utilized to bypass network bottlenecks. One example would be to connect via infiniband between two Bladecenter chassis, where one has SAN attachment to tape, and the other does not. This could bypass a limited ethernet bandwidth without having to move the TSM server instance.
The second is the NDMP api. NDMP is used by NetApp and other network attached storage (NAS) to allow tape access to the appliance itself rather than having to back it up via an attached NAS client. TSM supports NDMP v3 and v4, with data transiting the LAN or allowing the appliance direct access to shared tape.
- IBM TSM for Storage Archive Manager - This is a marketing name for TSM Enterprise Edition features which help maintain archive retention for regulatory purposes.
- IBM TSM for NDMP - this is a marketing name for TSM EE features allowing LAN or LAN-Free backups of NAS devices. Specifically, NetApp or EMC Centera are supported; however, any NDMP v3 or NDMP v4 client should be supported.
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Operational Reporting - This is a portion of the TSM MMC for Windows which can generate webpages and email out of SQL queries and simple processing of that data. Custom SQL can be added; however, the reporting tool provides no trending or graphing functionality. This is seen as one of the major faults of TSM.
- The Disaster Recovery Manager (DRM), is part of the "Enterprise Edition" of the product. This is a set of commands which aid in the management of offsite secondary copies of data, the TSM Database backups required to access those media, and the configuration data required to recover the TSM database in case of a loss.
Non-Tivoli API clients
- A product by BMC to back up a variety of database products into TSM.
DB2 - Being major, internally developed product, DB2 contains its own direct connection into the TSM API.
adsmpipe - an unsupported tool provided by IBM through its RedBook site for piping data directly into TSM. Commonly used to back up MySQL
ADINT - developed by IBM Germany in Entwicklung by the Enterprise Service Division (ESD) as a "Support Offering" to back up SAP MaxDB directly into TSM.
Archive Backup Client for OpenVMS - A product by STORServer Inc. to back up OpenVMS systems into TSM. With ABC you can back up, archive, restore, query and manage OpenVMS files stored on TSM servers as a logical extension to the on-line OpenVMS ODS-2 or ODS-5 file systems.
STORServer Data Protection for Oracle Rdb on OpenVMS - A product by STORServer Inc. to backup Oracle on OpenVMS into TSM.
CBMR - A product by Cristie sold as a BMR tool for Linux, Solaris and Windows using TSM as a datastore.
TSM is descended from the Workstation DataSave Facility (WDSF) project done at IBM's Almaden Research Center around 1990. WDSF's original purpose was to back up PC/DOS, OS/2, and AIX workstation data onto an MVS (and later VM/CMS) server.
The TSM database through to release 5.5 is a bespoke B+ tree database with an architectural limit of approximately 530GB, and 13GB of log space. Although the TSM database uses many of the same underlying technologies as IBM's DB2, has an SQL engine (though for read-access only), and supports access through ODBC, until release 6.1 it was a custom embedded database sharing no DB2 code. IBM has announced that TSM will use a DB2 database, commencing with release 6.1.
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 6.1 (anticipated), Q4 2008
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.5 November, 2007
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.4 January, 2007
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.3 2005
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.2 2003
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.1.5
- IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.1.0
- Tivoli Storage Manager 4.2.1 August, 2001
- Tivoli Storage Manager 4.2.0 May 7, 2001
- Tivoli Storage Manager 4.1 2000
- Tivoli Storage Manager 3.7 1999
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 3.1.2 September 3, 1998 (with DRM)
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 3.1.1
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 3.1 1997
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 2.1 1995
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 1.2.1 1995 for AS/400 (EZADSM for OS/2 released)
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 1.2 1994 for OS/2 and AIX
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager 1.1 July 29, 1993
- Workstation DataSave Facility (WDSF40 for VM) September 9, 1990
Versions and Releases typically aimed for mid-November, but often run late.
IBM follows the "Version, Release, Maintenance, Patch" numbering for this product.
Versions generally come out architectural changes.
Releases are roll-up bundles of new features.
Maintenance levels are regression tested fix bundles.
Patches are small fixes that are not fully regression tested, but correct common issues.
Each number is a branch in the development tree, such for example, defects corrected in 22.214.171.124 might still exist in 126.96.36.199.
Dave Cannon docs at Oxford TSM symposium