, also referred to as anthypophora
is a figure of speech
where the speaker poses a question and then answers the question.
The word anthypophora is present in Ancient Greek
and is mentioned by the Roman
in his book Institutio Oratoria
. In Institutio Oratoria
, Quintilian merely identifies anthypophora as a device used to verify the truth of something, and does not mention raising a hypothetical question or objection. An earlier work by the Greek rhetorician Gorgias
mentions anthypophora in its current definition, that is, presenting an opposing argument and then refuting it. The 16th-century English rhetorical
handbook The Arte of English Poesie
, reputedly by George Puttenham
, gives the current definition of Anthypophora as well as numerous examples.
Hypophora v. Anthypophora
In recent times, a division has arisen between the definitions of hypophora and anthypophora. The Century Dictionary
identifies hypophora as the dissenting statement or question and anthypophora as the reply to the question. Thus the two terms have come to embrace both elements of hypophora, as well as dealing with the whole concept.
The rhetorical effectiveness lies in allowing the speaker to answer questions the listener may have. For instance, in Paul
's Epistle to the Romans
, Paul is explaining Jesus
and he says "Is He
the God of the Jews only? Is He
not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also" (Romans 3.29). In this manner, Paul confirms to the reader that God is god of both the Jews and Gentiles.
- Cuddon, J.A., ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. 3rd ed. Penguin Books: New York, 1991.
- Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). Greek Grammar. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36250-0.