Huxley

Huxley

[huhks-lee]
Huxley, Aldous Leonard, 1894-1963, English author; grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he traveled widely and during the 1920s lived in Italy. He came to the United States in the 1937 and settled in California. On the verge of blindness from the time he was 16, Huxley devoted much time and energy in an effort to improve his vision. He began his literary career writing critical essays and symbolist poetry, but he soon turned to the novel. Crome Yellow (1921), Antic Hay (1923), Those Barren Leaves (1925), and Point Counter Point (1928) are brittle, skeptical pictures of a decadent society. Brave New World (1932), the most popular of his novels, presents a nightmarish, dystopian civilization in the 25th cent. It was followed by Eyeless in Gaza (1936), After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939), Ape and Essence (1948), The Devils of Loudon (1952), and The Genius and the Goddess (1955). Marked by an exuberance of ideas and comic invention, his novels reflect, with increasing cynicism, his disgust and disillusionment with the modern world. His later writings, however, reveal a strong interest in mysticism and Eastern philosophy. His fascination with mind-expansion and experimentation with LSD prompted the writing of The Doors of Perception (1954), a long essay extremely popular in the drug-oriented 1960s and still one of his most-read books. Huxley's other works include collections of short stories, of which Mortal Coils (1922) is representative, and essays, including End and Means (1937) and Brave New World Revisited (1958).

See R. S. Baker and J. Sexton, ed., Complete Essays (6 vol., 2000-2002); memoir by his wife, L. A. Huxley (1968); J. Sexton, ed., Aldous Huxley: Selected Letters (2007); biographies by S. Bedford (2 vol., 1973-74), G. A. Nance (1989), and N. Murray (2003); studies by P. Thody (1973), K. M. May (1973), G. Cockshott (1980), P. E. Firchow (1984), and M. Schubert (1986); R. W. Clark, The Huxleys (1968).

Huxley, Andrew Fielding, 1917-, British research scientist, educated at University College, London. He finished his studies at Cambridge after doing operational research for the admiralty during World War II. He was director of studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1952 to 1960, when he became professor of physiology at University College, London. He is the half brother of Sir Julian Huxley and Aldous Huxley. He shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with A. L. Hodgkin and Sir John Carew Eccles for analysis of the electrical and chemical events in nerve cell discharge.
Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell, 1887-1975, English biologist and writer, educated at Oxford; grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley. He taught at the Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. (1912-16), at Oxford (1919-25), and at King's College, London (1925-35). During those years and subsequently, as secretary (1935-42) of the Zoological Society of London, he was also president of the National Union of Scientific Workers (1926-29). From 1946 to 1948 he served as director-general of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. A gifted exponent of science, his writings include Animal Biology (with J. B. S. Haldane, 1927), Scientific Research and Social Needs (1934), We Europeans (with A. C. Haddon, 1936), The Living Thoughts of Darwin (1939), Man in the Modern World (1947), Heredity, East and West (1949), and Memories (2 vol., 1971 and 1974). Also, he edited T. H. Huxley's Diary of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake (1935), The New Systematics (1940), and The Humanist Frame (1962).

See biography by J. R. Baker (1978).

Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-95, English biologist and educator, grad. Charing Cross Hospital, 1845. Huxley gave up his own biological research to become an influential scientific publicist and was the principal exponent of Darwinism in England. An agnostic (see agnosticism), he doubted all things not immediately open to logical analysis and scientific verification. He held up truth as an ideal and spoke and wrote frequently on its tool, the scientific method, and its yield, the evolutionary theory. He placed human ethics outside the scope of the materialistic processes of evolution; he believed that civilization is man's protest against nature and that progress is achieved by the human control of evolution. Huxley held numerous public offices, serving on 10 royal commissions (1862-84). His many works include Evolution and Ethics (1893), Collected Essays (9 vol., 1893-94), Scientific Memoirs (4 vol., 1898-1902), and an autobiography (1903).

See selected writings, ed. by C. Bibby (1967); biographies by Huxley's son Leonard (1920, repr. 1969) and C. Bibby (1972).

(born May 4, 1825, Ealing, Middlesex, Eng.—died June 29, 1895, Eastbourne, Sussex) British biologist. The son of a schoolmaster, he earned a medical degree. After working as a surgeon on a surveying expedition in the South Pacific (1846–50), during which he carried out extensive studies of marine organisms, he taught for many years at the Royal School of Mines in London (1854–85). In the 1850s he established his reputation with his important papers on animal individuality, certain mollusks, the methods of paleontology, the methods and principles of science and science education, the structure and functions of nerves, and the vertebrate skull. He was one of the earliest and strongest supporters of Darwinism; his 1860 debate with Bishop Samuel Wilberforce gained widespread attention. In the 1860s Huxley did valuable work in paleontology and classification, especially classification of birds. Later in life he turned to theology; he is said to have coined the word agnostic to describe his views. Few scientists have been as influential over such a wide field of scientific development and as effective in the total movement of thought and action within their own generation.

Learn more about Huxley, T(homas) H(enry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 4, 1825, Ealing, Middlesex, Eng.—died June 29, 1895, Eastbourne, Sussex) British biologist. The son of a schoolmaster, he earned a medical degree. After working as a surgeon on a surveying expedition in the South Pacific (1846–50), during which he carried out extensive studies of marine organisms, he taught for many years at the Royal School of Mines in London (1854–85). In the 1850s he established his reputation with his important papers on animal individuality, certain mollusks, the methods of paleontology, the methods and principles of science and science education, the structure and functions of nerves, and the vertebrate skull. He was one of the earliest and strongest supporters of Darwinism; his 1860 debate with Bishop Samuel Wilberforce gained widespread attention. In the 1860s Huxley did valuable work in paleontology and classification, especially classification of birds. Later in life he turned to theology; he is said to have coined the word agnostic to describe his views. Few scientists have been as influential over such a wide field of scientific development and as effective in the total movement of thought and action within their own generation.

Learn more about Huxley, T(homas) H(enry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Aldous Huxley, 1959.

(born July 26, 1894, Godalming, Surrey, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1963, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) British novelist and critic. Grandson of T.H. Huxley and brother of Julian Huxley, he was partially blind from childhood. He is known for works of elegant, witty, pessimistic satire, including Crome Yellow (1921) and Antic Hay (1923), which established him as a major novelist, and Point Counter Point (1928). The celebrated Brave New World (1932) is a nightmarish vision of a future society that expresses his distrust of trends in politics and technology. Beginning with Eyeless in Gaza (1936), his works reveal a growing interest in Hindu philosophy and mysticism. Later works include the nonfiction The Devils of Loudun (1952) and The Doors of Perception (1954), about his experiences with hallucinogens.

Learn more about Huxley, Aldous (Leonard) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Aldous Huxley, 1959.

(born July 26, 1894, Godalming, Surrey, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1963, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) British novelist and critic. Grandson of T.H. Huxley and brother of Julian Huxley, he was partially blind from childhood. He is known for works of elegant, witty, pessimistic satire, including Crome Yellow (1921) and Antic Hay (1923), which established him as a major novelist, and Point Counter Point (1928). The celebrated Brave New World (1932) is a nightmarish vision of a future society that expresses his distrust of trends in politics and technology. Beginning with Eyeless in Gaza (1936), his works reveal a growing interest in Hindu philosophy and mysticism. Later works include the nonfiction The Devils of Loudun (1952) and The Doors of Perception (1954), about his experiences with hallucinogens.

Learn more about Huxley, Aldous (Leonard) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Huxley is a city in Story County, Iowa, United States. The population was 2,316 at the 2000 census. It is part of the 'Ames, Iowa Metropolitan Statistical Area', which is a part of the larger 'Ames-Boone, Iowa Combined Statistical Area'.

Geography

Huxley is located at (41.895983, -93.602782).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 square miles (2.9 km²), all of it land.

Huxley is part of the Ballard Community School District. It also hosts the annual Prairie Festival.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,316 people, 917 households, and 631 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,042.9 people per square mile (791.3/km²). There were 964 housing units at an average density of 850.3/sq mi (329.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.41% White, 0.22% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.65% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.30% of the population.

There were 917 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.1% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $48,068, and the median income for a family was $56,202. Males had a median income of $37,736 versus $29,013 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,172. About 3.5% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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