Definitions

Husayn

Husayn

Husayn. For some names spelled thus, use Husein or Hussein.

(born April 28, 1937, Tikrīt, Iraq—died Dec. 30, 2006, Baghdad) President of Iraq (1979–2003). He joined the Baaynth Party in 1957. Following participation in a failed attempt to assassinate Iraqi Pres. aynAbd al-Karīm Qāsim in 1959, Ssubdotaddām fled to Cairo, where he briefly attended law school. He returned to Iraq when the Baaynthists gained power in 1963. Jailed when the Baaynthists were overthrown, he escaped and helped reinstall the party to power in 1968. He led the nationalization of the oil industry in 1972. He took over the presidency with the aims of replacing Egypt as leader of the Arab world and of gaining hegemony over the Persian Gulf, and he launched wars against Iran (Iran-Iraq War, 1980–90) and Kuwait (Persian Gulf War, 1990–91), both of which he lost. He instituted a brutal dictatorship and directed intensive campaigns against minorities within Iraq, particularly the Kurds. U.S. fears regarding his development of weapons of mass destruction led to Western sanctions against Iraq. Sanctions were followed by an Anglo-American invasion in 2003 (Iraq War) that drove him from power. After several months in hiding, he was captured by U.S. forces. In 2006 the Iraqi High Tribunal sentenced him to death for crimes against humanity. Days after an Iraqi court upheld his sentence in December 2006, Ssubdotaddām was executed. Seealso Pan-Arabism.

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in full Hsubdotussein ibn Tsubdotalāl

King Hsubdotussein of Jordan.

(born Nov. 14, 1935, Amman, Transjordan—died Feb. 7, 1999, Amman, Jordan) King of Jordan (1952–99). Educated in Britain, he succeeded his father, King Tsubdotalāl, while still in his teens. His country's precarious geographic and economic position and the many Palestinians living there (whom he, unlike other Arab rulers, offered citizenship and a passport) forced him to chart a cautious course in international relations. Though he carried on secret talks with all Israeli leaders except Menachem Begin, he joined other Arab nations against Israel in the Six-Day War (1967). When the Jordan-based Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) threatened his reign after defeat in that conflict, Hsubdotussein expelled it (1971). Thereafter he sought to repair relations with the PLO without unduly antagonizing Israel or the U.S. He surrendered Jordan's claim to the West Bank in 1988, ceding it to the PLO. He considered his 1994 peace treaty with Israel his crowning achievement.

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Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn (1817 – 1902) (علي باي بن حسين) was the ruler of Tunisia from 1882 until 1902. He was the first ruler under the French protectorate.

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