Hull

Hull

[huhl]
Hull, Bobby (Robert Marvin Hull, Jr.), 1939-, Canadian hockey player. Considered to be the best left wing in the sport's history, Hull was skating from age three and began playing with the Chicago Black Hawks of the National Hockey League (NHL) in the 1957-58 season. He played 15 seasons with them before joining the Winnipeg Jets of the World Hockey Association (WHA) for 1972-79 and then the Hartford Whalers (NHL) for the 1980-81 season. Hull led the NHL in scoring three times (1959-60, 1961-62, 1965-66) and was most valuable player twice (1964-65, 1965-66). He was also named most valuable player in the WHA for 1972-73.
Hull, Cordell, 1871-1955, American statesman, b. Overton co. (now Pickett co.), Tenn. Admitted to the bar in 1891, he sat (1893-97) in the Tennessee legislature and, after service in the Spanish-American War, was appointed (1903) circuit court judge. He served (1907-21, 1923-31) in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he was the author of important tax legislation. He was elected (1930) to the U.S. Senate, but resigned (1933) when Franklin Delano Roosevelt named him Secretary of State. Hull placed great emphasis on international economic relations. Through his efforts, pacts were signed with several nations under the Reciprocal Agreements Act (1934), and he fostered the "good neighbor" policy toward Latin American countries. After World War II broke out in Europe he pushed for aid to the Allies and recommended revision of the Neutrality Act. After U.S. entry into the war, he worked to improve cooperation among the Allies, visiting Moscow in 1943, and backed the establishment of a world organization to maintain peace. Ill health caused his resignation as Secretary of State in 1944. He was awarded the 1945 Nobel Peace Prize.

See his autobiography (1948); biography by J. W. Pratt (2 vol., 1964).

Hull, Isaac, 1773-1843, American naval officer, b. Derby, Conn. He served in the undeclared naval war with France (1798-1800) and in the Tripolitan War before being promoted to captain in 1806. In 1810 he was given command of the Constitution. Early in the War of 1812 he slipped his ship out of Chesapeake Bay and, evading seven enemy ships, succeeded in making his way through the British blockade to Boston Harbor. On Aug. 19, 1812, the Constitution met the Guerrière in one of America's great sea battles. Hull's superior seamanship forced the British vessel to surrender.

See his papers, ed. by G. W. Allen (1929); biographies by B. Grant (1947) and L. T. Molloy (1964).

Hull, William, 1753-1825, American general, b. Derby, Conn. He served brilliantly in the American Revolution and became in 1805 governor of the newly created Michigan Territory. As the War of 1812 began he asked Congress for a larger U.S. fleet on Lake Erie and reinforcements for Detroit. Hull, in command of Detroit, failed to make a planned attack on Canada and instead remained in Detroit until British forces under Sir Isaac Brock seized the fort on Aug. 16, 1812, capturing many supplies. Hull was court-martialed for cowardice and neglect of duty, and only his Revolutionary War record prevented his execution. Subsequent evidence has shown that Hull was not solely to blame for the disastrous campaign.
Hull, city (1991 pop. 60,707), SW Que., Canada, at the confluence of the Ottawa and Gatineau rivers, opposite Ottawa; inc. 1875. Hull has a hydroelectric power station. There are paper, pulp, textile, steel, and lumber mills, iron foundries, and cement and meatpacking plants. Hull is a center for service industries and federal government offices. Civil servants form the largest bloc of workers. It contains the Canadian Museum of Civilization and a large casino. Nearby is Gatineau Park, a large recreation area.
Hull, officially Kingston upon Hull, city (1991 pop. 310,636), NE England, on the north shore of the Humber estuary at the influx of the small Hull River. Its port is one of the chief outlets for the surrounding area, which is also accessible by rail. Imports include oilseed, wood, foodstuffs, wool, metal ores, and petroleum; exports include coal, coke, machinery, automobiles, tractors, iron and steel products, and textiles. Hull is also one of the world's largest fishing ports. Among its many manufactures are processed foods, chemicals, iron and steel products, and machinery. Flour mills and sawmills are nearby.

Hull was founded late in the 13th cent. by Edward I, and the construction of docks, which extend for miles along the Humber, was begun c.1775. In July, 1981, the Humber Bridge was opened; communication with other cities thus improved, and Hull's economic value increased. The Wilberforce House, Municipal Museum, and Ferens Art Galleries are noteworthy. The grammar school, founded in 1486, was attended by Andrew Marvell and William Wilberforce, who were born in Hull. Schools include the Univ. of Hull, Endsleigh College, and Kingston upon Hull College. Trinity House, established in 1369 to aid sailors, has been Trinity House Navigation School since 1787. Hull's annual fair is one of the largest in England.

(born June 24, 1753, Derby, Conn.—died Nov. 29, 1825, Newton, Mass., U.S.) U.S. Army officer. He fought in American Revolutionary campaigns in Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. In 1805 he was appointed governor of Michigan Territory. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, he was appointed brigadier general and charged with defending Michigan and attacking Canada. His poorly planned invasion of Canada forced him to retreat to Detroit, where he surrendered without a fight. He was court-martialed and convicted of cowardice and neglect of duty; his death sentence was remitted by Pres. James Madison because of his earlier service.

Learn more about Hull, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Hull

City and unitary authority (pop., 2001: 243,595), geographic county of East Riding of Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, England. It lies on the northern bank of the River Humber at its junction with the River Hull, 22 mi (35 km) from the North Sea. Hull was a medieval wool port that passed from the monks of Meaux Abbey to Edward I in 1293. For more than 400 years it was the chief shipping port for the inland waterways converging on the River Humber. Granted city status in 1897, it is a major national seaport, accommodating large oceangoing vessels. The medieval part of the city retains a number of historic buildings; its grammar school was founded in 1486.

Learn more about Kingston upon Hull with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 9, 1773, Derby, Conn.—died Feb. 13, 1843, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. naval officer. A nephew of William Hull, he was master of a ship by age 19. He was commissioned a lieutenant aboard the USS Constitution in 1798, becoming its commander in 1810. He distinguished himself in the undeclared naval war with France at that time and in the Tripolitan War (1801–1805). Early in the War of 1812 he engaged the British frigate Guerrière and, after a fierce battle, rendered it a wreck. He was recognized as one of the navy's ablest commanders, and his ship became known as “Old Ironsides.” He commanded the U.S. squadrons in the Pacific (1824–27) and in the Mediterranean (1839–41).

Learn more about Hull, Isaac with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 24, 1753, Derby, Conn.—died Nov. 29, 1825, Newton, Mass., U.S.) U.S. Army officer. He fought in American Revolutionary campaigns in Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. In 1805 he was appointed governor of Michigan Territory. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, he was appointed brigadier general and charged with defending Michigan and attacking Canada. His poorly planned invasion of Canada forced him to retreat to Detroit, where he surrendered without a fight. He was court-martialed and convicted of cowardice and neglect of duty; his death sentence was remitted by Pres. James Madison because of his earlier service.

Learn more about Hull, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 9, 1773, Derby, Conn.—died Feb. 13, 1843, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. naval officer. A nephew of William Hull, he was master of a ship by age 19. He was commissioned a lieutenant aboard the USS Constitution in 1798, becoming its commander in 1810. He distinguished himself in the undeclared naval war with France at that time and in the Tripolitan War (1801–1805). Early in the War of 1812 he engaged the British frigate Guerrière and, after a fierce battle, rendered it a wreck. He was recognized as one of the navy's ablest commanders, and his ship became known as “Old Ironsides.” He commanded the U.S. squadrons in the Pacific (1824–27) and in the Mediterranean (1839–41).

Learn more about Hull, Isaac with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 2, 1871, Overton county, Tenn., U.S.—died July 23, 1955, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. politician and diplomat. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1907–21, 1923–31), where he wrote the first income-tax bill (1913) and the inheritance-tax law (1916). He served briefly in the U.S. Senate (1931–33). As secretary of state under Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–44), he worked for international agreements to reduce high tariff barriers. He helped to improve U.S. relations with Latin America through what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy. In East Asia he rejected a proposed “Japanese Monroe Doctrine” that would have given that country a free hand in China (1934). When the U.S. entered World War II, Hull began to plan an international postwar peacekeeping body. For this work, Roosevelt described him as the “father of the United Nations.” He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1945.

Learn more about Hull, Cordell with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Robert Martin Hull

Bobby Hull, 1969.

(born Jan. 3, 1939, Point Anne, Ont., Can.) Canadian ice-hockey player. He played centre and left wing for the Chicago Blackhawks (1957–72) in the National Hockey League (NHL), where his booming slap shot and fast skating made him a dominant figure; he scored 50 or more goals in each of five seasons. Throughout his NHL career he scored 610 goals, 560 assists, and 1,170 points. He also played in the now-defunct World Hockey Association (1972–81).

Learn more about Hull, Bobby with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 2, 1871, Overton county, Tenn., U.S.—died July 23, 1955, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. politician and diplomat. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1907–21, 1923–31), where he wrote the first income-tax bill (1913) and the inheritance-tax law (1916). He served briefly in the U.S. Senate (1931–33). As secretary of state under Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–44), he worked for international agreements to reduce high tariff barriers. He helped to improve U.S. relations with Latin America through what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy. In East Asia he rejected a proposed “Japanese Monroe Doctrine” that would have given that country a free hand in China (1934). When the U.S. entered World War II, Hull began to plan an international postwar peacekeeping body. For this work, Roosevelt described him as the “father of the United Nations.” He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1945.

Learn more about Hull, Cordell with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Robert Martin Hull

Bobby Hull, 1969.

(born Jan. 3, 1939, Point Anne, Ont., Can.) Canadian ice-hockey player. He played centre and left wing for the Chicago Blackhawks (1957–72) in the National Hockey League (NHL), where his booming slap shot and fast skating made him a dominant figure; he scored 50 or more goals in each of five seasons. Throughout his NHL career he scored 610 goals, 560 assists, and 1,170 points. He also played in the now-defunct World Hockey Association (1972–81).

Learn more about Hull, Bobby with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hull is the central and oldest part of the city of Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. It is located on the west bank of the Gatineau River and the north shore of the Ottawa River, directly opposite Ottawa. As part of the Canadian National Capital Region, it contains offices for twenty thousand fonctionnaires or civil servants.

Hull is in the Outaouais region and is located within the City of Gatineau; the name "Gatineau" itself sometimes is more specifically used to refer to a mostly-suburban former city of Gatineau on the opposite side of the Gatineau River.

Geography

Hull is located near the confluence of the Gatineau and Ottawa Rivers.

Navigation beyond Ottawa-Hull on the Ottawa River still remains difficult as watercraft must be removed from the Ottawa River due to obstacles posed by rapids such as the Rapides des Chaudières or "Kettle Rapids".

Demographics

Prior to amalgamation, Hull's population was 66,246 (2001 Census of Canada).

Approximately 80% of the hullois or hulloise residents speak French as their first language and about 9% English as their first language (2001 Census of Canada).

History

Hull is the oldest part of all places in the National Capital Region: it was founded in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the head of navigation of the Ottawa River (at the portage around the Chaudière Falls). At that time the location was a remote mosquito-infested wilderness and started out as an agricultural settlement. But soon after, Wright and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. Originally the place was named "Wrightville" (or sometimes "Wrightsville" or "Wrightstown") , which survives as the name of a neighborhood in Hull. While Wright arrived by way of Woburn, Massachusetts, the settlement was renamed after the name of his family's original home town Kingston-upon-Hull in the United Kingdom.

The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was very much the preserve of the draveurs, people who would use the river to transport logs from lumber camps until they arrived downriver; the Gatineau River drains into the Ottawa River, which ends at Montreal. The log-filled Ottawa River (as viewed from Hull) appeared on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill until it was replaced by a dollar coin (the "loonie") in 1987; the very last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later.

Ottawa was founded later, as the terminus of the Rideau Canal built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812. Originally named Bytown, Ottawa did not become the Canadian capital until the mid-1800s after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of English-speaking citizens on April 25, 1849. Its greater distance from the American border also left the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack.

Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement; the downtown Vieux-Hull sector was destroyed by a terrible fire in 1900 which also destroyed the original pont des Chaudières (Chaudière Bridge), a road bridge which has since been rebuilt to join Ottawa to Hull at Victoria Island.

In the 1940s, during World War II, Hull, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay, Lac St. Jean and Saint Helen's Island, had Prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was simply labeled with a number and remained unnamed just like Canada's other war prisons. The prisoners of war (POWs) where sorted and classified into categories including there nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs where mostly of Italian and German nationality. During the Conscription Crisis of 1944 the prison eventually included Canadians that refused conscription. Also, prisoners where forced into hard labour which included farming and lumbering the land.

During the 1970s and early 80s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was transformed by its demolition and replacement with a series of large office complexes. Some 4,000 residents were displaced, and many businesses uprooted along what was once the town's main commercial area.

The ill-conceived demolition of much of Hull's downtown core, including many landmark buildings such as the original post office and other commercial buildings, made way for the new federal office buildings. The result was devastating.

Under the shadow of these colossal towers Hull's population fell from 63,580 in 1971 to 56,225 in 1981. This represented a 12% or net 7,355 decrease in population. Approximately 4,000 of these people were displaced by the construction projects and the remaining 3,355 moved away from the ghetto that was created by city planners who built office towers among homes but with virtually no buildings remaining to house retail stores and other commerce.

The first disco opened its doors in 1974 and by 1984 there were 27 drinking establishments including discos, taverns and a strip bar within a three block stretch of Promenade du Portage which was known as the Hull bar strip. Hull swiftly became a haven of drugs, prostitution and debauchery for which it is famous to this day.

During the mid 90's the city secretly set out on a campaign to shut down the drinking establishments with the intention of replacing each of them with any other more civilized commercial enterprise. Since the province, not the city, is responsible for renewing liquor licenses the city methodically purchased buildings through buyer's agents and temporary corporations one by one but left the tenants in place in order not to raise suspicion.

The plan succeeded to a very high degree. Eventually though, the story leaked and the building owners began raising their asking prices; in some cases quadrupling their asking prices. The city quickly bought a few more buildings until the prices got out of hand and then stopped abruptly. By the time the smoke cleared the city had purchased virtually every building that housed a licensed establishment and then the hammer came down; no leases were renewed.

The city did not renew the "tavern" licenses at any of the buildings and then sold the buildings at fair market value. Since "tavern" licenses are only available for renewal and none will ever again be issued to new establishments there can never again be new establishments that sell only liquor. The only licenses available to new applicants require that the vendor sell 50% "prepared food product". Consequently only restaurants, cafes and bistro's can operate with a new license.

The urban renewal project is well underway with tax incentives given to qualified owners who revitalize the facade of their buildings. Promenade du Portage, which at one time required crowd fencing at night to keep pedestrians from leaving the overcrowded sidewalks to walk on the street, is now home to many European style cafe's and bistro's with patios and an assortment of retail ventures.

The neighbourhood is the most affordable in all of Ottawa and Gatineau (Hull). Rents on average cost 1/3 of what they do in Ottawa. It is convenient and pleasurable to walk from Hull to downtown Ottawa on the boardwalk of the Alexandra Bridge so many civil/public servants commute on foot or bicycle and save on their rent or mortgage.

Amalgamation

In 2002, the Parti Québécois, leading the provincial government, merged the cities of Hull, Gatineau, Aylmer, Buckingham and Masson-Angers into one city. Although Hull was the oldest and most central of the merged cities, the name Gatineau was chosen for the new city. The main reasons given were that Gatineau had more inhabitants, it was the name of the former county, the valley, the hills, the park and the main river within the new city limits: thus its name was less restrictive than Hull. Some argued that the French name of Gatineau was more appealing than a name from England to most French-speaking residents. Hull-Gatineau had been the most popular choice in the polls, but the transition committee excluded all hyphenated possibilities from being included on the ballot. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was formerly known as Gatineau, to be officially correct and specific many people say "vieux secteur Hull" (the former Hull part of town) when speaking of it.

In 2004, there was a referendum to decide whether Hull would remain in Gatineau. The majority of those who voted in Hull voted against the deamalgamation, and the status quo prevailed.

Economy

Hull now depends primarily on the civil service as an economic mainstay. A number of federal and provincial government departments are located here. The policy of the federal government to distribute federal jobs on both sides of the Ottawa River led to the construction of several massive office towers to house federal civil servants in 1970s and 80s; the largest of these are Place du Portage and Terrasses de la Chaudière, occupying part of what had been the downtown core of Hull.

Two paper mills (Scott Paper and the E.B. Eddy division of Domtar Inc.) still retain some industrial facilities on the Ottawa River in the centre of Hull, Quebec.

Hull is also the home to the Casino du Lac Leamy and to the Canadian Museum of Civilization directly opposite Parliament Hill. Hull is also Outaouais's cultural centre.

See also

References

External links

Search another word or see Hullon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature