In 1604, Tadaharu succeeded to the leadership of his house on the early death of his father Tadauji: his grandfather acted as regent because of his youth. Between 1607 and 1611 he completed the construction of Matsue Castle. In 1611, Yoshiharu died, and Tadaharu took up personal leadership. In 1619, when the domain of Fukushima Masanori was seized, Tadaharu received Hiroshima Castle, which had belonged to Masanori.
There is a wooden statue of Tadaharau at Enjōji Temple in Matsue.