Homophobic propaganda (anti-homosexual propaganda, anti-gay propaganda) — organised social and political activity (public speech, public behavior, meetings and actions), based on negative and intolerant attitude towards LGBT people or same-sex relations. The homophobic propaganda supports anti-gay prejudices and stereotypes, promotes social stigmatisation and/or discrimination. The term "homophobic propaganda" was used by the historian Stefan Micheler in his work "Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism", as well as other works treating the topic.
In some countries some most severe forms of homophobic propaganda are considered hate speech and are prohibited by the law. In Russia, such propaganda can also be treated as illegal, because laws in Russia explicitly prohibit hate speech against any social group (not explicitly mentioning sexual orientation though), and LGBT can be considered as distinct social group. But law specialists generally agree that in Russia the law is practically not working. Cases of criminal punishment for anti-gay, nationalistic or other xenophobic hate speech are rare in Russia.
History of homophobic propaganda
Political attitude towards homosexual people in Nazi
era of German
history was based on the assumption that homosexuals are destroying German nation and are "enemies" and "sexual degenerates". Historian Erwin J. Haeberle in his work "Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany" dates the first appearance of this political attitude in Nazi party to May 14 1928
, long before 1933, when Nazi party came to the power.
Homophobic propaganda and law
became the first country in which in the 1981 year a criminal penalty (a money payment or imprisonment for up to 2 years) for public threats, defamations, expressions of hate, agitation for discrimination against LGBT
was added to Criminal Code.
On July 1 1987
in the Netherlands
became effective an addition to the Dutch Penal code, which established punishment for public defamations on the basis of sexual orientation as fees or imprisonment for up to two years.
In 1989 in Ireland
a resolution against anti-gay hate speech
came into effect. It establishes penalty in the form of fees or imprisonment for up to two years for publication or distribution of materials which contain defamations, threats, hate speech or offenses for LGBT people.
On March 2 1993
in New South Wales in Australia came into effect an amendment to the antidiscrimination law, which prohibits public hate speech, despisement or deridement of homosexual people. A legal exclusion is an information which is distributed for educational, religious, scientific or social purposes.
On December 10 1999 an analogous amendment was accepted by Tasmanian parliament. In this law no exclusions are permitted.
- Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. New York: Holt, 1986. ISBN 0805006001
- Grau, Gunter. The Hidden Holocaust?: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45. Routledge, 1995. ISBN 188496415X
- Heger, Heinz. The Men with the Pink Triangle: the True Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps. Alyson Publications Inc., U.S., 1995. ISBN 0932870066
- Healy, Dan. How many victims of the antisodomy law. Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia. The University of Chicago Press, 2001. ISBN 0226322343