27 Volhynian Infantry Division (27 Wołyńska Dywizja Piechoty) was the World War II Polish Armia Krajowa unit fighting in 1944 in Volhynia region. It was recreated on January 15, 1944 from smaller partisan units of self-defence during the Volhynia massacre and was patterned after the prewar Polish 27th Infantry Division.
The division initially aided local self-defence units during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and fought against the Ukrainian Uprising Army. It also fought German anti-partisan units and regular Wehrmacht troops. In 1944 the division fought several major battles near Włodzimierz Wołyński (February 23), Hołoby (March 9) and Zasmyki (March 17). During the latter two battles the division cooperated with local Soviet partisan groups and the advancing Red Army. After reaching the frontline and contacting with the Soviets, Col. Jan Kiwerski "Oliwa" was asked to join the unit with the Red Army as a regular unit of Soviet-backed Polish army. He declined and returned to partisan fights. The division was surrounded by the Germans near Kowel on April 2.
After receiving a promise of Soviet help, the unit fought surrounded for two weeks and then, after no help arrived, started to break through in the direction of Włodawa. As a result of heavy fighting, losses varied between 10% and 50% of personnel.
The division returned northwards and was surrounded by the end of May. Elements of the division broke through the Prypeć river and reached the Soviet lines. The officers were arrested by the NKVD and sent to Russia while most of the soldiers were conscripted to the army of Gen. Zygmunt Berling.
The remnants of the division withdrew westwards, crossed the Bug River on June 7 to the Parczew Forest near Lublin. It joined other Home Army units and took part in the liberation of Kock, Lubartów, and the village Firlej on July 21.
After the Red Army reached the area they took over the captured territory. Most of the divisions officers, NCOs and ordinary soldiers were arrested by the NKVD and sent to GuLags. Only a small part joined the Red Army or the Polish Army.