The Patagonian Huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), also known as the South Andean Deer, is found in Chile and Argentina. Huemules live in groups the size of which depends on several factors, often at 2-3 but currently still reaching 11 animals, but in the past over 100 deer; these groups are made up of a female and her young. Males at times might be alone.
The Peruvian Guemal (Hippocamelus antisensis), known locally as Taruca, is found in the highland cloud forests of Peru, as well as parts of Bolivia, and tree-less Puna grasslands. They live in high altitudes, from 2,500 to 5,200 meters above sea level. Social habits include grazing in flexible groups of 3-14 animals consisting of one or two males and several females. The Guemal is active during daytime and has a lifespan of about 10 years. The conservation status of the Peruvian guemal is currently considered vulnerable.
Huemul occur in several national parks in Chile and neighbouring parts of Argentina and have been on the Endangered list since 1976. They are endangered primarily due to human impacts such as deforestation, habitat fragmentation by roads, introduction of non-native mammals such as farm animals, and poaching. They are in a classic "extinction spiral" marked by increasingly small, isolated populations and are now considered critically endangered.
The huemul is, along with the condor, the national animal of Chile.