Standard Hindi derives much of its formal and technical vocabulary from Sanskrit while standard Urdu derives much of its formal and technical vocabulary from Persian. Standard or shuddha ("pure") Hindi and Urdu are used only in public addresses and radio or TV news, while the everyday spoken language in most areas is one of several varieties of Hindustani, whose vocabulary contains words drawn from Persian, Arabic, and Hindi. In addition, spoken Hindustani includes words from English and other languages as well.
Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan). In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words to make them easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce. Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically. This article will deal with the categories of Hindustani words and some of the common words found in the Hindustani language.
One of the most common words in Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) is hai "is". It originates from the following two sources:
The Sanskrit s sometimes becomes h in Prakrits.
Shortening of ahai produced hai. In some older works in Hindustani literature, one can find usage of ahai. For example, Bharatendu Harishchandra wrote: "निज भाषा उन्नति अहै, सब उन्नति को मूल" ("نِج بھاشا اُنّتِ اَہے، سب اُنّتِ کو مُول "). In Marathi it becomes "aahe".
The word jata ("goes") is from Sanskrit root yaa (yaati, yaata). ya often becomes "ja" in Prakrit.
The word gaya ("went") is from Sanskrit root gam (gachchhati), from gatah. Here t transforms to y in Prakrit.
The word aajaa has also been used in Northern India and Pakistan for "grandfather". It is indeed derived from arya meaning "sir" in this case. Jains nuns are addressed either as Aryika or Ajji.
The word daadaa also has a similar meaning which varies in region. It is used in some regions for "father", in other regions for "older brother", or even for "grandfather" in other regions. This word is an amalgam of two sources:
development in Hindi, with many period extracts. (Accessed Mar 16, 2006).