Definitions

Highland climate

Mountain climate

Mountain climate (also highland climate) is a crude geographical term used for the kind of climate in the mountains and generally in the high country. It is often contrasted to the climate of the cloudy, lowland area surrounding or near the same mountains.

The areas of mountain climate generally have colder winters and milder summers. Due to higher elevation, the temperature is by and large lower, the main form of precipitation is snow, often accompanied by stronger winds. At the same time, due to increased insolation, there is more sunlight during the winter.

Under the Köppen climate classification scheme, areas described as having a mountain climate can fit under Alpine climate, or under Hemiboreal climate, but also Semi-arid climates.

The Cascade Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Tibetan Highlands (or Plateau), the Eastern Highlands of Africa, and the central parts of Borneo and New Guinea are important highland climates.

The mountain climate in the Andes is particularly known for the notion of four zones of elevation:

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