Hidalgo

Hidalgo

[hi-dal-goh; Sp. ee-thahl-gaw]
Hidalgo, state (1990 pop. 1,888,366), 8,058 sq mi (20,870 sq km), central Mexico. Pachuca de Soto is the capital. Crossed by the Sierra Madre Oriental, the state is extremely mountainous; in the southern and western areas, however, are plains and fertile valleys lying within Mexico's central plateau. The climate is warm in the lower valleys, temperate on the plateau, and cold in the mountains. One of Hidalgo's chief crops is maguey (see amaryllis), grown on the central plateau. Alfalfa, corn, sugarcane, and coffee are also cultivated. The state's main industry is mining (particularly around Pachuca), and Hidalgo is a leading national producer of silver, gold, copper, lead, iron, and sulfur. Cement, textile, automobile manufacturing and especially oil refining are other major industries. The territory was occupied successively by the Toltec (whose capital was Tollán—now Tula), the Chichimecs, and the Aztecs. Conquered by the Spanish in 1530, it was part of the province and state of Mexico until it became the separate state of Hidalgo in 1869. There are several hot springs in Hidalgo.
Hidalgo, in astronomy: see asteroid.
hidalgo [contraction of Span. hijo de algo=son of something], term designating the lowest degree of Spanish nobility, a rank above the ordinary gentry but below the great lords. The status was granted either directly from the crown (hidalgo de carta) or was inherited through birth (hidalgo de sangre). The term was known as early as the 12th cent.; the prolonged warfare to reconquer Spain from the Moors especially necessitated the continuous expansion of this knightly class. Although it did not have any political importance, the rank gave its members privileges such as use of the title Don and considerable exemption from taxation. The hidalgo is a familiar character in Spanish literature, often being portrayed as a vagabond knight.

(Feb. 2, 1848) Treaty between the U.S. and Mexico that ended the Mexican War, named for the Mexico City neighbourhood where it was signed. It drew the U.S.-Mexico boundary at the Rio Grande and the Gila River. For $15 million the U.S. received more than 525,000 sq mi (1.36 million sq km) of land and agreed to settle the more than $3 million in claims made by U.S. citizens against Mexico. By leaving Mexicans unsure of their country's future and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the vast territory ceded to the U.S., the treaty was a factor in the civil wars that followed in both countries.

Learn more about Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 8, 1753, near Pénjamo, Guanajuato, Mex.—died July 30, 1811, Chihuahua) Mexican priest, called the father of Mexican independence. Ordained in 1789, he had an uneventful early career. In the town of Dolores (now Dolores Hidalgo), he joined a group plotting independence from Spain in the light of Napoleon's invasion of that country. On Sept. 16, 1810, when his group was betrayed, he rang the church bell and addressed his parishioners with his Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”), calling them to revolution. Thousands of Indians and mestizos joined him, and he succeeded in capturing Guanajuato and other cities in the region before reaching Mexico City, where his hesitation led to their defeat and his execution. The martyred Hidalgo became a potent symbol of the independence movement that eventually succeeded, and each September 16—now celebrated as Mexico's Independence Day—the president shouts a version of the Grito de Dolores from the National Palace balcony.

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State (pop., 2000: 2,235,591), east-central Mexico. It covers 8,036 sq mi (20,813 sq km), and its capital is Pachuca. It was part of the state of México until 1869, when it was established as a separate state in honour of the revolutionary patriot Miguel Hidalgo. Containing some of the most mountainous areas in Mexico, it has extensive mineral deposits, including silver and gold. In pre-Columbian times it was the centre of the Toltec civilization; an archaeological site near Tula, west of Pachuca, is the remains of the Toltec capital. The state has major metalworking factories as well as agricultural production.

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(Feb. 2, 1848) Treaty between the U.S. and Mexico that ended the Mexican War, named for the Mexico City neighbourhood where it was signed. It drew the U.S.-Mexico boundary at the Rio Grande and the Gila River. For $15 million the U.S. received more than 525,000 sq mi (1.36 million sq km) of land and agreed to settle the more than $3 million in claims made by U.S. citizens against Mexico. By leaving Mexicans unsure of their country's future and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the vast territory ceded to the U.S., the treaty was a factor in the civil wars that followed in both countries.

Learn more about Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hidalgo is a village in Jasper County, Illinois, United States. The population was 123 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Hidalgo is located at (39.156628, -88.150697).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.9 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 123 people, 50 households, and 31 families residing in the village. The population density was 358.2 people per square mile (139.7/km²). There were 62 housing units at an average density of 180.5/sq mi (70.4/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White.

There were 50 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.0% were non-families. 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.16.

In the village the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $25,972, and the median income for a family was $26,875. Males had a median income of $25,417 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the village was $13,167. There were no families and 6.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64.

References

External links

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