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Heuldal of Gojoseon

List of monarchs of Korea

The Korean Dynasties are listed in the order of their fall.

This list includes the monarchs' romanized posthumous or temple names and reign dates. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.

Gojoseon

Gojoseon (c.2333 - 108 BCE) was the first Korean kingdom. It is said to have been founded by Dangun in 2333 BCE, although the foundation year is disputed among historians. Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture is found in northern Korea and southern Manchuria. By the 4th century BCE, various historical and archaeological evidence shows Gojoseon was a flourishing state and a self-declared kingdom.

The Annals of the kings are recorded in Gyuwon Sahwa (1675), which is described by its author as a collection of nationalistic legends. The Hwandan Gogi (1979), a controversial text whose authenticity is widely questioned, lists different years of reign.

Dangun-Joseon

from Gyuwon Sahwa, considered legendary:

  1. Dangun Wanggeom 왕검 王儉 (2333-2240 BCE)
  2. Buru 부루 夫婁 (2240-2206 BCE)
  3. Gareuk 가륵 嘉勒 (2206-2155 BCE)
  4. Osa 오사 烏斯 (2155-2106 BCE)
  5. Gueul 구을 丘乙 (2106-2071 BCE)
  6. Dalmun 달문 達門 (2071-2039 BCE)
  7. Hanyul 한율 翰栗 (2039-2014 BCE)
  8. Seohan 서한 西翰 (2014-1957 BCE)
  9. Asul 아술 阿述 (1957-1929 BCE)
  10. Noeul 노을 魯乙 (1929-1906 BCE)
  11. Dohae 도해 道奚 (1906-1870 BCE)
  12. Ahan 아한 阿漢 (1870-1843 BCE)
  13. Heuldal 흘달 屹達 (1843-1800 BCE)
  14. Gobul 고불 古弗 (1800-1771 BCE)
  15. Beoreum 벌음 代音 (1771-1738 BCE)
  16. Wina 위나 尉那 (1738-1720 BCE)
  17. Yeoeul 여을 餘乙 (1720-1657 BCE)
  18. Dongeom 동엄 冬奄 (1657-1637 BCE)
  19. Gumoso 구모소 侯牟蘇 (1637-1612 BCE)
  20. Gohol 고홀 固忽 (1612-1601 BCE)
  21. Sotae 소태 蘇台 (1601-1568 BCE)
  22. Saekbullu 색불루 索弗婁 (1568-1551 BCE)
  23. Amul 아물 阿忽 (1551-1532 BCE)
  24. Yeonna 연나 延那 (1532-1519 BCE)
  25. Solla 솔나 率那 (1519-1503 BCE)
  26. Churo 추로 鄒魯 (1503-1494 BCE)
  27. Dumil 두밀 豆密 (1494-1449 BCE)
  28. Haemo 해모 奚牟 (1449-1427 BCE)
  29. Mahyu 마휴 摩休 (1427-1418 BCE)
  30. Nahyu 내휴 奈休 (1418-1365 BCE)
  31. Deungol 등올 登口 (1365-1359 BCE)
  32. Chumil 추밀 鄒密 (1359-1351 BCE)
  33. Gammul 감물 甘勿 (1351-1342 BCE)
  34. Orumun 오루문 奧婁門 (1342-1322 BCE)
  35. Sabeol 사벌 沙伐 (1322-1311 BCE)
  36. Maereuk 매륵 買勒 (1311-1293 BCE)
  37. Mamul 마물 麻勿 (1293-1285 BCE)
  38. Damul 다물 多勿 (1285-1266 BCE)
  39. Duhol 두홀 豆忽 (1266-1238 BCE)
  40. Dareum 달음 達音 (1238-1224 BCE)
  41. Eumcha 음차 音次 (1224-1205 BCE)
  42. Euruji 을우지 乙于支 (1205-1196 BCE)
  43. Mulli 물리 勿理 (1196-1181 BCE)
  44. Guhol 구홀 丘勿 (1181-1174 BCE)
  45. Yeoru 여루 餘婁 (1174-1169 BCE)
  46. Boeul 보을 普乙 (1169-1158 BCE)
  47. Goyeolga 고열가 古列加 (1158-1128 BCE)

Gija-Joseon

Dangun Joseon was succeeded by Gija-Joseon. Whether Gija Joseon actually existed is a matter of controversy. Korean scholars deny its existence for various reasons.

  1. King Munseong of Gojoseon, Gija 문성대왕 文聖大王 (r. 1126 -1082 BCE)
  2. King Janghye of Gojoseon 장혜왕 莊惠王 (r. 1082 -1057 BCE)
  3. King Gyeonghyo of Gojoseon 경효왕 敬孝王 (r. 1057-1030 BCE)
  4. King Gongjeong of Gojoseon 공정왕 恭貞王 (r. 1030-1000 BCE)
  5. King Munmu of Gojoseon 문무왕 文武王 (r. 1000-972 BCE)
  6. King Taewon of Gojoseon 태원왕 太原王 (r. 972-968 BCE)
  7. King Gyeongchang of Gojoseon 경창왕 景昌王 (r. 968-957 BCE)
  8. King Heungpyeong of Gojoseon 흥평왕 興平王 (r. 957-943 BCE)
  9. King Cheorwi of Gojoseon 철위왕 哲威王 (r. 943-925 BCE)
  10. King Seonhye of Gojoseon 선혜왕 宣惠王 (r. 925-896 BCE)
  11. King Uiyang of Gojoseon 의양왕 誼襄王 (r. 896-843 BCE)
  12. King Munhye of Gojoseon 문혜왕 文惠王 (r. 843-793 BCE)
  13. King Seongdeok of Gojoseon 성덕왕 盛德王 (r. 793-778 BCE)
  14. King Dohoe of Gojoseon 도회왕 悼懷王 (r. 778-776 BCE)
  15. King Munyeol of Gojoseon 문열왕 文烈王 (r. 776-761 BCE)
  16. King Changguk of Gojoseon 창국왕 昌國王 (r. 761-748 BCE)
  17. King Museong of Gojoseon 무성왕 武成王 (r. 748-722 BCE)
  18. King Jeonggyeong of Gojoseon 정경왕 貞敬王 (r. 722-703 BCE)
  19. King Nakseong of Gojoseon 낙성왕 樂成王 (r. 722-703 BCE)
  20. King Hyojong of Gojoseon 효종왕 孝宗王 (r. 722-703 BCE)
  21. King Cheonhyo of Gojoseon 천효왕 天老王 (r. 658-634 BCE)
  22. King Sudo of Gojoseon 수도왕 脩道王 (r. 634-615 BCE)
  23. King Hwiyang of Gojoseon 휘양왕 徽襄王 (r. 615-594 BCE)
  24. King Bongil of Gojoseon 봉일왕 奉日王 (r. 594-578 BCE)
  25. King Deokchang of Gojoseon 덕창왕 德昌王 (r. 578-560 BCE)
  26. King Suseong of Gojoseon 수성왕 壽聖王 (r. 560-519 BCE)
  27. King Yeonggeol of Gojoseon 영걸왕 英傑王 (r. 519-503 BCE)
  28. King Ilmin of Gojoseon 일민왕 逸民王 (r. 503-486 BCE)
  29. King Jese of Gojoseon 제세왕 濟世王 (r. 486-465 BCE)
  30. King Cheongguk of Gojoseon 청국왕 清國王 (r. 465-432 BCE)
  31. King Doguk of Gojoseon 도국왕 導國王 (r. 432-413 BCE)
  32. King Hyeokseong of Gojoseon 혁성왕 赫聖王 (r. 413-385 BCE)
  33. King Hwara of Gojoseon 화라왕 和羅王 (r. 413-385 BCE)
  34. King Seolmun of Gojoseon 설문왕 說文王 (r. 369-361 BCE)
  35. King Gyeongsun of Gojoseon 경순왕 慶順王 (r. 361-342 BCE)
  36. King Gadeok of Gojoseon 가덕왕 嘉德王 (r. 342-315 BCE)
  37. King Samhyo of Gojoseon 삼효왕 三老王 (r. 315-290 BCE)
  38. King Hyeonmun of Gojoseon 현문왕 顯文王 (r. 315-290 BCE)
  39. King Jangpyeong of Gojoseon 장평왕 章平王 (r. 251-232 BCE)
  40. King Jongtong of Gojoseon 종통왕 宗統王 (r. 232-220 BCE)
  41. King Ae of Gojoseon 애왕 哀王 (r. 220-195 BCE)

Wiman Joseon

Main article: Wiman Joseon earliest attested by contemporaneous records:

  1. Wiman of Gojoseon 위만 衛滿 (194 BCE - ?)
  2. Unknown (? - ?), son of Wiman
  3. Ugeo of Gojoseon 우거왕 右渠王 (? - 108 BCE), grandson of Wiman

Buyeo

Buyeo (c.239-494 CE) ruled in modern-day Manchuria. The rulers continued to use the titles of Dangun. Some records refer to Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo). It was absorbed into Goguryeo.

  1. Haemosu of Buyeo 해모수 解慕漱 (239-195 BCE)
  2. Mosuri of Buyeo 모수리 慕漱離 (195-170 BCE)
  3. Go Haesa of Buyeo 고해사 高奚斯 (170-121 BCE)
  4. Go Uru of Buyeo 고우루 高于婁 (121-86 BCE)

Bukbuyeo

(c.108 BCE–c.58 BCE)

  1. Go Dumak of Bukbuyeo 고두막 高豆莫 (108-60 BCE)
  2. Go Museo of Bukbuyeo 고무수 高無胥 (60-58 BCE)

Dongbuyeo

(c.86 BCE–22 CE) The rulers of Dongbuyeo submitted to Bukbuyeo in 86 BC, and thus used the title Wang ("King").

  1. Hae Buru of Dongbuyeo 해부루왕 解夫婁王 (86-48 BCE)
  2. Geumwa of Dongbuyeo 금와왕 金蛙王 (48-7 BCE)
  3. Daeso of Dongbuyeo 대소왕 臺素王 (7 BCE - 22 CE)

Later Buyeo

Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 BC - 668 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1]

# Posthumous name[2] Hangul (Hanja) Personal names [3][4] Period of reign
Legendary line [5]
1 Dongmyeongseong 동명성왕 (東明聖王), 동명왕 (東明王) Jumong 주몽 (朱蒙), Chumo 추모 (鄒牟), Sanghae 상해 (象解) 37-19 BCE
2 Yurimyeong 유리왕 (琉璃王), 유리명왕 (琉璃明王) Yuri 유리 (琉璃, 類利), Yuryu 유류 (孺留), Nuri 누리 (累利) 19 BCE - 18 CE
3 Daemusin 대무신왕 (大武神王), 대해주류왕 (大解朱留王) Muhyul 무휼 (無恤) 18-44
4 Minjung 민중왕 (閔中王) Saekju 색주 (色朱) 44-48
5 Mobon 모본왕 (慕本王) U 우 (憂), Aeru 애루 (愛婁), Mangnae 막래 (莫來) 48-53
Great Imperial line
6 Taejo 태조[대]왕 (太祖[大]王), 국조왕 (國祖王) Gung 궁 (宮), Eosu 어수 (於漱) 53-146
7 Chadae 차대왕 (次大王) Suseong 수성 (遂成) 146-165
8 Sindae 신대왕 (新大王) Baekgo 백고 (伯固), Baekgu 백구 (伯句) 165-179
Hwando-Guknae line
9 Gogukcheon 고국천왕 (故國川王), 국양왕 (國襄王) Nammu 남무 (男武) 179-197
10 Sansang 산상태왕 山上太王 Jeong-u 정우 廷優, Wigung 위궁 位宮 197-227
11 Dongcheon 동천왕 東川王, 東襄王 Uwigeo 우위거 憂位居, Gyoche 교체 郊彘 227-248
12 Jungcheon 중천왕 中川王, 中襄王 Yeonbul 연불 然弗 248-270
13 Seocheon 서천왕 西川王, 西襄王 Yangno 약로 藥盧, Yagu 약우 若友 270-292
14 Bongsang 봉상왕 烽上太王, 鴙葛王 Sangbu 상부 相夫, Sapsiru 삽시루 插矢婁 292-300
15 Micheon 미천왕 美川太王, 好攘王 Eulbul 을불 乙弗, Ubul 우불 憂拂 300-331
16 Gogugwon 고국원왕 故國原王 Sayu 사유 斯由, Yu 유 劉, Soe 쇠 釗 331-371
17 Sosurim 소수림왕 小獸林王 Gubu 구부 丘夫 371-384
18 Gogugyang 고국양왕 故國攘王 Yiryeon 이련 伊連, Eojiji 어지지 於只支 384-391
19 Gwanggaeto the Great 국강상광개토경평안호태왕 國彊上廣開土境平安好太王 Damdeok 담덕 談德, An 안 安 391-413
Pyongyang line
20 Jangsu 장수태왕 長壽太王 Georyeon 거련 巨連, Goryeon 고련 高璉 413-490
21 Munjamyeong 문자명왕 文咨明王 Na-un 나운 羅雲, Go-un 고운 高雲 491-519
22 Anjang 안장왕 安藏王 Heung-an 흥안 興安, Go-an 고안 高安 519-531
23 Anwon 안원왕 安原王 Bojeong 보정 寶廷, Gojeong 고정 高廷 531-545
24 Yangwon 양원왕 陽原王, 陽崗上王 Pyeongseong 평성 平成 545-559
25 Pyeongwon 평원왕 平原王 Yangseong 양성 陽成, Tang 탕 湯, Goyang 고양 高陽 559-590
26 Yeongyang 영양왕 嬰陽王, 평양왕 平陽王 Go Won 고원 高元, Daewon 대원 大元 590-618
27 Yeongnyu 영류왕 榮留王 Go Geonmu 고건무 高建武, Seong 성 成, Gomu 고무 高武 618-642
28 Bojang 보장왕 寶藏王 Go Jang 고장 高藏, Bojang 보장 寶藏 642-668
Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's own records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang", roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the title should be translated as "Emperor," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but this is not widely accepted. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang", meaning King.

[2] The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.

[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.

[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

[5] The Legendary line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.

Sources: http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/koreanking/html/person/koguryeo_king.html (The Academy of Korean Studies) and http://enc.daum.net/dic100//topView.do (Korea Britannica Corp.)

Bodeok

The Kingdom of Bodeok (보덕국 報德國 ,668-683) was a Goguryeo revival movement led by General Geom Mojam, and Prince Anseung, who was a grandson of Bojang Taewang. This kingdom allied itself with Later Silla, and fought to remove all Tang armies and authority out of the Korean Peninsula. The Kingdom of Goguryeo fell when Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam. After this event, Anseung and the remainder of the revival movement fled down to Silla, where Anseung was married to a Silla princess and given land near Iksan. Bodeok was the name given to Anseung's small kingdom near Iksan after the fall of the Goguryeo revival movement of Geom Mojam.

  1. Anseung (안승 安勝) (668-683)

Baekje

Baekje (18 BC - AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names were the same as personal names, unless noted otherwise.

# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign Personal name Relationship Note
1 Onjo 온조왕 溫祚王 18 BCE - 29 CE founder son of Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo
2 Daru 다루왕 多婁王 29 - 77 first son of Onjo
3 Giru 기루왕 己婁王 77 - 128 first son of Daru
4 Gaeru 개루왕 蓋婁王 128 - 166 son of Giru
5 Chogo 초고왕 肖古王 166 - 214 son of Gaeru also Sogo (소고왕, 素古王)
6 Gusu 구수왕 仇首王 214 - 234 first son of Chogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴須王)
7 Saban 사반왕 沙泮王 234 first son of Gusu also Sai (사이왕, 沙伊王)
8 Goi 고이왕 古爾王 234 - 286 second son of Gaeru also Gui (구이군, 久爾君)
9 Chaekgye 책계왕 責稽王 286 - 298 son of Goi also Cheonggye (청계왕, 靑稽王)
10 Bunseo 분서왕 汾西王 298 - 304 first son of Chaekgye
11 Biryu 비류왕 比流王 304 - 344 second son of Gusu
12 Gye 계왕 契王 344 - 346 first son of Bunseo
13 Geunchogo 근초고왕 近肖古王 346 - 375 second son of Biryu also Chogo (초고왕, 肖古王) or Sokgo (속고왕, 速古王)
14 Geun-gusu 근구수왕 近仇首王 375 - 384 son of Geunchogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴首王)
15 Chimnyu 침류왕 枕流王 384 - 385 first son of Geungusu
16 Jinsa 진사왕 辰斯王 385 - 392 younger brother of Chimnyu also Buyeohui (부여휘, 扶餘暉)
17 Asin 아신왕 阿莘王 392 - 405 cousin of Jinsa; first son of Chimnyu also Aha (아화왕, 阿華王)
18 Jeonji 전지왕 腆支王 405 - 420 first son of Asin also Jikji (직지왕, 直支王) or Jinji (진지왕, 眞支王)
19 Gu-isin 구이신왕 久爾辛王 420 - 427 first son of Jeonji
20 Biyu 비유왕 毗有王 427 - 454 first son of Guisin also Yeobi (여비, 餘毗)
21 Gaero 개로왕 蓋鹵王 454 - 475 Gyeongsa (경사, 慶司) or Gyeong (경, 慶) first son of Biyu also Yeogyeong (여경, 餘慶)
22 Munju 문주왕 文周王 475 - 477 Modo (모도, 牟都) or Do (도, 都) son of Gaero
23 Samgeun 삼근왕 三斤王 477 - 479 Samgeun (삼근, 三斤), Imgeol (임걸, 壬乞) or Samgeol (삼걸, 三乞) first son of Munju also Mun-geun (문근왕, 文斤王)
24 Dongseong 동성왕 東城王 479 - 501 Modae (모대, 牟大) or Mamo (마모, 摩牟) cousin of Samgeum
25 Muryeong 무령왕 武寧王 501 - 523 Sama (사마, 斯麻 or 斯摩) or Yung (융, 隆) second son of Dongseong also Sama (사마왕, 斯麻王), Do (도왕, 嶋王), or Horyeong (호령왕, 虎寧王)
26 Seong 성왕 聖王 523 - 554 Myeong (명, 明) son of Muryeong also Myeong (명왕, 明王) or Seongmyeong (성명왕, 聖明王)
27 Wideok 위덕왕 威德王 554 - 598 Chang (창, 昌) first son of Seong also Chang (창왕, 昌王)
28 Hye 혜왕 惠王 598 - 599 Gye (계, 季) younger brother of Wideok also Heon (헌왕, 獻王)
29 Beop 법왕 法王 599 - 600 Seon (선, 宣) or Hyosun (효순, 孝順) first son of Hye
30 Mu 무왕 武王 600 - 641 personal name Jang (장, 璋) or Seodong (서동, 薯童) youngest son of Wideok also Mugang (무강왕, 武康王) or Mugwang (무광왕,武廣王)
31 Uija 의자왕 義慈王 641 - 660 first son of Mu

  • Source:

Baekje Revival Movement

After the fall of Baekje in 660, several loyal Baekje generals gathered like-minded people and began organizing revival movements of their country. The most prominent among these revival movement leaders were General Heukchi Sangji, and General Boksin. These two generals worked together, and later decided that the new kingdom would need a ruler, and brought Prince Buyeo Pung from the Yamato Kingdom. The revival movement resulted in failure due to mistrust and infighting.

  1. Pungjang of Baekje (부여풍 扶餘豐) (r.661-663)

Silla

Silla (57 BC - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, Silla was ruled by the Pak, Seok, and Kim families. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, and Daewang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세 거서간 朴赫居世居西干 (57 BCE4 CE)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해 차차웅 南解次次雄 (4–24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung the Great 법흥태왕 法興太王 (514–540) ("King Beopheung the Great" is a translation of Beopheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  24. King Jinheung the Great 진흥태왕 眞興太王 (540–576) ("King Jinheung the Great" is a translation of Jinheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 眞智王 (576–579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 眞平王 (579–632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕왕 善德王 (632–647)
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕왕 眞德王 (647–654)
  29. King Muyeol the Great 태종무열왕 太宗武烈王 (654–661) ("King Muyeol the Great" is a translation of Muyeol Daewang, "Daewang" meaning "great king")

Later Silla

  1. King Munmu 문무대왕 文武大王 (661–681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–691)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
  4. King Seongdeok the Great 성덕대왕 聖德大王 (702–737) ("King Seongdeok the Great" is a translation of Seongdeok Daewang, "Daewang" meaning "great king")
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809-826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성왕 眞聖王 (887–897)
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (913–917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935)

Gaya confederacy

The Gaya confederacy (42-532) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

Geumgwan Gaya

This list is of the Kim Dynasty of Geumgwan Gaya (42-532).
# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign
1 Suro of Geumgwan Gaya 수로왕 首露王 (42-199)
2 Geodeung of Geumgwan Gaya 거등왕 居登王 (199-259)
3 Mapum of Geumgwan Gaya 마품왕 麻品王 (259-291)
4 Geojilmi of Geumgwan Gaya 거질미왕 居叱彌王 (291-346)
5 Isipum of Geumgwan Gaya 이시품왕 伊尸品王 (346-407)
6 Jwaji of Geumgwan Gaya 좌지왕 坐知王 (407-421)
7 Chwihui of Geumgwan Gaya 취희왕 吹希王 (421-451)
8 Jilji of Geumgwan Gaya 질지왕 銍知王 (451-492)
9 Gyeomji of Geumgwan Gaya 겸지왕 鉗知王 (492-521)
10 Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya 구형왕 仇衡王 (521-532)

Daegaya

Only four of the sixteen kings of Daegaya (42 - 562) are known by name.
1. King Ijinashi of Daegaya 이진아시왕, also known as Naejinjuji 내진주지 or Noejiljuil 뇌질주일
9. King Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕, 8th generation descendant of Yi Jinashi
?. King Haji of Daegaya 하지왕, generation unknown; possibly also known as King Gasil ; sent emissary to 南齊 China in 479, joined Baekje to aid Silla from Goguryeo attack in 481
16. King Doseolji of Daegaya 도설지왕, submitted to Silla

Balhae

Balhae (669-926) followed Goguryeo in the northern territories when Silla unified most of the Korean peninsula. The founder called the state Jin, claiming to be the successor to Goguryeo, but it became known as Balhae (Pohai in Chinese) after establishing relations with China.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號) Posthumous name (諡號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
0 Dae Jung-sang 대중상
大仲象
669–699 Junggwang 중광
重光
Sejo 열왕
烈王
1 Dae Joyeong 대조영
大祚榮
699–718 Cheontong 천통
天統
Go 고왕
高王
2 Dae Muye 대무예
大武藝
718–737 Inan 인안
仁安
Mu 무왕
武王
3 Dae Heummu 대흠무
大欽茂
737–793 Daeheung * 대흥
大興 *
Mun 문왕
文王
4 Dae Won-ui 대원의
大元義
793–794 None None None None
5 Dae Hwa-yeo 대화여
大華與
794 Jungheung 중흥
中興
Seong 성왕
成王
6 Dae Sung-rin 대숭린
大嵩璘
794–808 Jeongryeok 정력
正曆
Gang 강왕
康王
7 Dae Won-yu 대원유
大元瑜
808–812 Yeongdeok 영덕
永德
Jeong 정왕
定王
8 Dae Eon-ui 대언의
大言義
812–817? Jujak 주작
朱雀
Hui 희왕
僖王
9 Dae Myeongchung 대명충
大明忠
817?–818? Taesi 태시
太始
Gan 간왕
簡王
10 Dae Insu 대인수
大仁秀
818?–830 Geonheung 건흥
建興
Seon 선왕
宣王
11 Dae Ijin 대이진
大彝震
830–857 Hamhwa 함화
咸和
Unknown Unknown
12 Dae Geonhwang 대건황
大虔晃
857–871 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
13 Dae Hyeonseok 대현석
大玄錫
871–895 Unknown Unknown Gyeong 경왕
景王
14 Dae Wihae 대위해
大瑋瑎
895–906 None None None None
15 Dae Inseon 대인선
大諲譔
906–926 Unknown Unknown Ae 애왕
哀王

Later Balhae

Later Balhae (927 - 935?, 1003?, 1007?, 1114?), was the first of many major successor states of Balhae, founded by the Dae clan at Holhanseong, the former capital of Balhae. The Dae, Yeol, and Oh clans ruled Later Balhae. The Dae clan ruled the kingdom until records show that General Yeol Manhwa took control of the government, and changed the state-name to Jeong-an.

Jeong-an Kingdom

Jeong-an Kingdom (정안국 定安國 ,935? or 938? - 985?), was a successor state of Balhae, founded by Yeol Manhwa. Political revolts between the Oh and Yeol clans rose up. The Oh clan rose victorious and Oh Hyeon-Myeong became the ruler of the kingdom until its fall in 985 CE.

  1. Yeol Manhwa 열만화 烈萬華 (935 CE? - ?)
  2. Oh Hyeon-Myeong 오현명 烏玄明 (976 CE - 985 CE)

Heung-yo Kingdom

Heung-yo kingdom (흥료국 興遼國 ,1029 - 1030) was brief successor-state of Balhae that was founded by Dae Yeon-rim. Dae Yeon-rim was a Liao general directly descended from Dae Joyeong, the founder of Balhae. Heung-yo rose from the western region of the former territories of Balhae, and fell when a general opened the gates to the invading Liao army in 1030.

  1. Dae Yeon-rim 대연림 大延琳 (1029 CE - 1030 CE)

Daewon Kingdom

Daewon Kingdom (대원국 大元國 ,1116) was brief successor-state of Balhae that was founded by Go Yeong-chang.

  1. Go Yeong-chang 고영창 高永昌 (1116 CE)

Je

The State of Je (765-819), also known as Chi-Chung, was founded by General Yi Jeonggi, a Tang general and son of a Goguryeo captive. Yi Jeonggi took advantage of the Tang Empire's pre-occupation with the An Lushan Rebellion, and established the kingdom of Chi-Chung, later called Je, claiming it a successor-state of Goguryeo. Chi-Chung took control of the Shandong Peninsula, and regions surrounding it. In this way, the kingdom posed a grave threat to the Tang Empire. After four generations, the Kingdom of Chi-Chung fell to a Tang-Silla alliance army. Before its destruction, Chi-Chung was said to have had a unique system of administration that combined both Goguryeo and Tang elements of government. It was also said to have had heavy influence in commerce and trading in East Asia.

  1. Yi Jeonggi (Hangul : 이정기 Hanja :李正己/李定己) 765CE - 781CE
  2. Yi Nab (Hangul : 이납 Hanja :李納) 781CE - 793 CE
  3. Yi Sago (Hangul : 이사고 Hanja :李師古) 793CE - 807CE
  4. Yi Sado (Hangul : 이사도 Hanja :李師道) 807CE - 819 CE

Later Baekje

Hubaekje (900-936) was founded by Gyeon Hwon, who was a general during Later Silla's period of decline. Gyeon Hwon was known among the people as a hero, and a patriot. When General Gyeon Hwon started a rebellion, many people followed, and assisted in his establishing of a new kingdom. Peace did not last as Gung-ye established Hugoguryeo in the north. Thus began the Later Three Kingdoms period. Hubaekje met its downfall at the hands of Gyeon Hwon himself, who later led the Goryeo armies alongside Emperor Wang Geon to capture Singeom, the prince of Hubaekje, who had betrayed Gyeon Hwon. Singeom was one of Gyeon Hwon's sons who had not been chosen as his successor. Accordingly, he had stood against his father, kidnapped him, and imprisoned him in a temple. Yet, Gyeon Hwon managed to escape and placed himself under Wang Geon. Even after all that conflicts between him and Gyeon Hwon, Wang Geon, who was younger than Gyeon Hwon, treated Gyeon Hwon well and considered him to be "Sangbu 상부", which literally means "my revered father."

  1. Gyeon Hwon (견훤 甄萱) (r.900-935)
  2. Singeom (견신검 甄神劍) (r.935-936)

Later Goguryeo

Later Goguryeo (901-918), also known as Ma-jin or Taebong, was established by Gung-ye, an outcast prince of Silla. Gung-Ye joined General Yang-Gil's rebellion, and rose through the ranks. He eventually assassinated Yang-Gil and established a new kingdom, naming it Later Goguryeo. Gung-Ye turned out to be a tyrant, and was overthrown by his generals, opening the way for General Wang Geon, who established Goryeo.

  1. Gung-ye (궁예 弓裔) (r.901-918)

Goryeo

Goryeo (918-1392) was ruled by the Wang Dynasty. The first ruler had the temple name Taejo, which means "great progenitor", and was applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, as they were also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively. Starting with Gwangjong, rulers of Goryeo styled themselves emperors, with the first three rulers elevated to that title posthumously. With the Mongol conquest, however, the title of the ruler was demoted to a king, or "Wang."

The next twenty-three emperors (until Wonjong) are also referred to by their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available

# Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Wang Geon 왕건
王建
918–943 Yakcheon (C) 약천
若天 (C)
Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
2 Wang Mu 왕무
王武
943–945 Sunggeon (C) 승건
承乾 (C)
Hyejong 혜종
惠宗 (T)
3 Wang Yo 왕요
王堯
945–949 Cheoneui (C) 천의 (C) Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
4 Wang So 왕소
王昭
949–975 Ilhwa (C) 일화
日華 (C)
Gwangjong 광종
光宗 (T)
5 Wang Yu 왕유
王伷
975–981 Jangmin (C) 장민
長民 (C)
Gyeongjong 경종
景宗 (T)
6 Wang Chi 왕치
王治
981–997 Ongo (C) 온고
溫古 (C)
Seongjong 성종
成宗 (T)
7 Wang Song 왕송
王誦
997–1009 Hyosin (C) 효신
孝伸 (C)
Mokjong 목종
穆宗 (T)
8 Wang Sun 왕순
王詢
1009–1031 Anse (C) 안세
安世 (C)
Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
9 Wang Heum 왕흠
王欽
1031–1034 Wonryang (C) 원량
元良 (C)
Deokjong 덕종
德宗 (T)
10 Wang Hyeong 왕형
王亨
1034–1046 Sinjo (C) 신조
申照 (C)
Jeongjong 정종
靖宗 (T)
11 Wang Hwi 왕휘
王徽
1046–1083 Chokyu (C) 촉유
燭幽 (C)
Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
12 Wang Hun 왕훈
王勳
1083 Euigong (C) 의공
義恭 (C)
Sunjong 순종
順宗 (T)
13 Wang Un 왕운
王運
1083–1094 Gyecheon (C) 계천
繼天 (C)
Seonjong 선종
宣宗 (T)
14 Wang Uk 왕욱
王昱
1094–1095 Heonjong 헌종
獻宗 (T)
15 Wang Hee 왕희
王熙
1095–1105 Cheonsang (C) 천상
天常 (C)
Sukjong 숙종
肅宗 (T)
16 Wang U 왕우
王俁
1105–1122 Semin (C) 세민
世民 (C)
Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
17 Wang Hae 왕해
王楷
1122–1146 Inpyo (C) 인표
仁表 (C)
Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
18 Wang Hyeon 왕현
王晛
1146–1170 Ilsung (C) 일승
日升 (C)
Uijong 의종
毅宗 (T)
19 Wang Ho 왕호
王皓
1170–1197 Jidan (C) 지단
之旦 (C)
Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
20 Wang Tak 왕탁
王晫
1197–1204 Jihwa (C) 지화
至華 (C)
Sinjong 신종
神宗 (T)
21 Wang Yeong 왕영
王韺
1204–1211 Bulpi (C) 불피
不陂 (C)
Huijong 희종
熙宗 (T)
22 Wang O 왕오/왕숙/왕정
王晶/王璹/王貞
1211–1213 Daehwa (C) 대화
大華 (C)
Gangjong 강종
康宗 (T)
23 Wang Cheol 왕철
王澈
1213–1259 Cheonu (C) 천우
天祐 (C)
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
24 Wang Sik 왕식
王倎
1259–1274 Ilsin (C) 일신
日新 (C)
Wonjong 원종
元宗 (T)
25 Wang Geo 왕거
王椹
1274–1308 Chungnyeol 충렬왕
忠烈王 (P)
26 Wang Jang 왕장
王璋
1308–1313 Jungang (C) 중앙
仲昻 (C)
Chungseon 충선왕
忠宣王 (P)
27 Wang Man 왕만
王燾
1313–1330
1332–1339
Euihyo (C) 의효 (C) Chungsuk 충숙왕
忠肅王 (P)
28 Wang Jeong 왕정
王禎
1330–1332
1339–1344
Botapsilli (M) 보탑실리
普塔失里 (M)
Chunghye 충혜왕
忠惠王 (P)
29 Wang Heun 왕흔
王昕
1344–1348 Palsamanaeisa(M) 팔사마타아지
八思麻朶兒只 (M)
Chungmok 충목왕
忠穆王 (P)
30 Wang Jeo 왕저
王蚳
1348–1351 Misagamtaaji (M) 미사감타아지
迷思監朶兒只 (M)
Chungjeong 충정왕
忠靖王 (P)
31 Wang Jeon 왕전
王祺
1351–1374 Ijae / Ikdang (Ps) 빠이엔티무르
伯顔帖木兒 (M)
이재 /익당 (Ps)
Gongmin 공민왕
恭愍王 (P)
32 Wang U 왕우
王禑
1374–1388 U 우왕
禑王 (P)
33 Wang Chang 왕창
王昌
1388–1389 Chang 창왕
昌王 (P)
34 Wang Yo 왕요
王瑤
1389–1392 Gongyang 공양왕
恭讓王 (P)

Joseon

Joseon (1392–1897) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, some of the Joseon kings were posthumously raised to the rank of emperors.

Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. Jo was given to the first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). Jong was given to all other kings/emperors.

Two kings, Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun, were not given temple names after their reigns ended.

Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

# Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Yi Seong gye 이성계
李成桂
1392–1398 Junggyeol (C) 중결
仲潔 (C)
Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
2 Yi Bang-gwa 이방과
李芳果
1398–1400 Gwangwon (C) 광원
光遠 (C)
Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
3 Yi Bang won 이방원
李芳遠
1400–1418 Yudeok (C) 유덕
遺德(C)
Taejong 태종
太宗(T)
4 Yi Do 이도
李祹
1418–1450 Wonjeong (C) 원정
元正 (C)
Sejong the Great 세종
世宗(T)
5 Yi Hyang 이향
李珦
1450–1452 Hwiji (C) 휘지
輝之(C)
Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
6 Yi Hong wi 이홍위
李弘緯
1452–1455 Danjong 단종
端宗 (T)
7 Yi Yu 이유
李瑈
1455–1468 Suji (C) 수지
粹之 (C)
Sejo 세조
世祖 (T)
8 Yi Gwang 이광
李晄
1468–1469 Myungjo/Pyeongnam (C) 명조/평남
明照/平南 (C)
Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
9 Yi Hyeol 이혈
李娎
1469–1494
(C)
Seongjong 성종
成宗(T)
10 Yi Yung 이융
李隆
1494–1506
(C)
Yeonsangun 연산군
燕山君
11 Yi Yeok 이역
李懌
1506–1544 Nakcheon (C) 낙천
樂天 (C)
Jungjong 중종
中宗 (T)
12 Yi Ho 이호
李峼
1544–1545 Cheonyun (C) 천윤
天胤 (C)
Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
13 Yi Hwan 이환
李峘
1545–1567 Daeyang (C) 대양
對陽 (C)
Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
14 Yi Yeon 이연
李蚣
1567–1608 Seonjo 선조
宣祖 (T)
15 Yi Hon 이혼
李琿
1608–1623
(C)
Gwanghaegun 광해군
光海君
16 Yi Jong 이종
李倧
1623–1649 Hwabaek (C) 화백
和伯(C)
Injo 인조
仁祖 (T)
17 Yi Ho 이호
李淏
1649–1659 Jeongyeon (C)
Juko (Ps)
정연/靜淵 (C)
죽오/竹梧 (Ps)
Hyojong 효종
孝宗(T)
18 Yi Yeon 이연
李棩
1659–1674 Gyungjik (C) 경직
景直 (C)
Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
19 Yi Sun 이순
李焞
1674–1720 Myungbo (C) 명보
明普 (C)
Sukjong 숙종
(T)
20 Yi Yun 이윤
李昀
1720–1724 Hwiseo (C) 휘서
輝瑞 (C)
Gyeongjong 경종
(T)
21 Yi Geum 이금
李昑
1724–1776 Gwangsuk (C)
Yangseongheon (Ps)
광숙/光叔 (C)
양성헌/養性軒 (Ps)
Yeongjo 영조
英祖 (T)
22 Yi San 이산
李祘
1776–1800 Hyeongun (C)
Hongjae (Ps)
형운/亨運 (C)
홍재/弘齋 (Ps)
Jeongjo 정조
正祖 (T)
23 Yi Gong 이공
李蚣
1800–1834 Gongbo (C)
Sunjae (Ps)
공보/公寶(C)
순재/純齋 (Ps)
Sunjo 순조
純祖 (T)
24 Yi Hwan 이환
李奐
1834–1849 Muneung (C)
Wonheon (Ps)
문응/文應 (C)
원헌/元軒 (Ps)
Heonjong 헌종
憲宗 (T)
25 Yi Byeon 이변
李昪
1849–1863 Dosung (C)
Daeyongjae (Ps)
도승/道升(C)
대용재/大勇齋(Ps)
Cheoljong 철종
哲宗 (T)
26 Yi Myeong bok 이명복
李命福
1863–1897 (1897-1907)* Seongrim (C)
Juyeon (Ps)
성림/聖臨(C)
주연/珠淵 (Ps)
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
27 Yi Cheok 이척
李拓
(1907–1910)* Gunbang (C)
Jeongheon (Ps)
군방/君邦(C)
정헌/正軒 (Ps)
Sunjong 순종
純宗 (T)

Korean Empire

The Korean Empire (1897-1910) was declared to indicate the end of the tributary relationship with China. Technically, the emperors should be referred to by their era names rather than their temple names, but the latter are commonly used.

# Personal name Period of reign Korean era name Temple name (廟號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Yi Myeong bok 이명복
李命福
1897–1907 Gwangmu 광무
光武
Gojong 고종
(T)
2 Yi Cheok 이척
李拓
1907–1910 Yunghui 융희
隆熙
Sunjong 순종
(T)

See also

Notes

References

  • Yoon, N.-H.(윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital(고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207 - 238 (2002)
  • Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭) (1999). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed.. ISBN 89-445-9101-6.
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5.
  • Kim, Jung Bae (1997). Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-177-6.
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1988). Korea: Tradition and Transformation — A History of the Korean People. Hollym International. ISBN 0-930878-56-6.
  • http://www.rootsinfo.co.kr/index_sub02.html (in Korean only)
  • http://www.rulers.org

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