Definitions

Hesse

Hesse

[hes-uh for 1; hes for 2]
Hesse, Eva, 1936-70, American sculptor, b. Hamburg, Germany. Hesse's sculpture displays an antiformalism that developed in the late 1960s in reaction against conventional geometric constructivism. Using such materials as latex, fiberglass, wire, and rope, she built numerous repeating series of large and eccentric forms. These were grouped irregularly over the floor or hung from the ceiling. Hesse's innovative work was cut short by her death from a brain tumor.

See B. Barrette, Eva Hesse Sculpture (1989).

Hesse, Hermann, 1877-1962, German novelist and poet. A pacifist, he went to Switzerland at the outbreak of World War I and became (1923) a Swiss citizen. The spiritual loneliness of the artist and his estrangement from the modern world are recurring themes in Hesse's works. His novels, increasingly psychoanalytic and symbolic, include Peter Camenzind (1904, tr. 1961), Unterm Rad (1906, tr. Beneath the Wheel, 1968), Rosshalde (1914, tr. 1970), and Demian (1919, tr. 1923, 1958). One of his most famous and most complex novels, Steppenwolf (1927, tr. 1929, 1963), treats the dual nature of humanity. This theme is also pursued in Narziss und Goldmund (1930, tr. Death and the Lover, 1932; Narcissus and Goldmund, 1968).

Among his other works are Das Glasperlenspiel (1943, tr. The Glass Bead Game, 1970) and Siddhartha (1922, tr. 1951), a novella reflecting Hesse's interest in Asian mysticism. The gentle, lyric quality of Hesse's prose is shared by the wistful, lamenting verse of his Gedichte (1922, tr. Poems, 1970) and Trost der Nacht (1929). His essays are collected in Betrachtungen (1928) and Krieg und Frieden (1946, tr. If the War Goes on… , 1970). Hesse was awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Bibliography

See his Wandering (autobiographical notes, tr. 1972); studies by R. Rose (1965), T. Ziolowski (1965 and 1966), M. Boulby (1967), G. W. Field (1972), J. Mileck (1978), R. Freedman (1979), and E. L. Stelzig (1988).

Hesse, Philip of: see Philip of Hesse.
Hesse, Ger. Hessen, state (1994 pop. 5,800,000), 8,150 sq mi (24,604 sq km), central Germany. Wiesbaden is the capital. It is bounded by Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in the south, Rhineland-Palatinate in the west, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony in the north, and Thuringia in the east. It was formed in 1945 through the consolidation of Hesse-Nassau, a former Prussian province, and most of Hesse-Darmstadt, a former grand duchy.

Land and Economy

Nearly all of Hesse is a hilly, agricultural land, heavily forested in parts. It has the Odenwald hills and the Taunus range and is drained by the Rhine, Main, Lahn, Eder, and Fulda rivers. Grain, potatoes, and fruit are grown, and cattle are raised there. Along the beautiful Rhine valley some of the finest German wines are produced. Industry is centered in the Frankfurt area and at Kassel, Wiesbaden, and Darmstadt. The chief manufactures include textiles, chemicals, machinery, and metal goods, as well as electrical products and scientific instruments. In recent years eastern European immigrants have sparked a number of small industries, including glass, toy, and musical-instrument manufactures. Wiesbaden, Bad Homburg, and Bad Nauheim are among numerous health resorts of Hesse. Frankfurt, Marburg, Giessen, and Darmstadt have noted universities.

History

Hesse has no unified history. Enfeoffed first to the dukes of Franconia, later to the counts of Thuringia, Hesse emerged in 1247 as a landgraviate immediately subject to the emperor under a branch of the house of Brabant. Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous (see Philip of Hesse), a leading figure in the German Reformation, was responsible for reuniting a territory that had been torn by border disputes with neighboring areas. At his death (1567) Philip's lands were divided among his four sons, with Kassel, Marburg, Rheinfels, and Darmstadt their respective capitals. Upon the demise shortly afterward of the Rheinfels (1583) and Marburg (1648) lines, the whole territory was held by the two remaining lines—Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) awarded Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt substantial territorial gains. Electoral Hesse, the free city of Frankfurt, and Nassau, having all three sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), were annexed by Prussia and were merged (1868) in the province of Hesse-Nassau, of which Kassel became the capital. The former state of Waldeck was incorporated into Hesse-Nassau in 1929. The grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt also had sided against Prussia. It ceded Hesse-Homburg (which it had just acquired through the extinction of that line). In 1871, Hesse-Darmstadt joined the newly founded German Empire, and it continued under its own dynasty until the German revolution of 1918. The Battenberg (Mountbatten) family is a morganatic branch of the house of Hesse. In World War II nearly all the major cities of Hesse suffered severe damage.

(born Nov. 13, 1504, Marburg, Hesse—died March 31, 1567, Kassel, Ger.) German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse, and champion of the Reformation. His skillful management made Hesse a sovereign state. Won to the cause of Martin Luther, Philip became a Reformation leader in Germany. In 1529 he founded the first Protestant university at Marburg (1529), and in 1531 he united several princes and towns to form the Schmalkaldic League. However, his folly in contracting a bigamous second marriage damaged his reputation. After the emperor crushed the league, Philip was imprisoned (1547–52). Long imprisonment undermined his influence and his health, though he finally saw Lutheranism gain a position of legal equality with Catholicism in the Peace of Augsburg (1555). In the year of his death, he divided Hesse among his four sons.

Learn more about Philip of Hesse with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hermann Hesse, 1957.

(born July 2, 1877, Calw, Ger.—died Aug. 9, 1962, Montagnola, Switz.) German novelist and poet. He left the seminary because of his inability to adapt to the life there. His first novel was Peter Camenzind (1904); it was followed by Beneath the Wheel (1906), Gertrud (1910), and Rosshalde (1914). An opponent of militarism, he settled permanently in Switzerland at the outbreak of World War I (1914–18). His later works deal with the individual's search for spiritual fulfillment, often through mysticism. Demian (1919), influenced by his experience with psychoanalysis, made him famous. Siddhartha (1922), about the early life of Buddha, reflects his interest in Eastern spiritualism. Steppenwolf (1927), which examines the conflict between bourgeois acceptance and spiritual self-realization, was highly influential in its time and brought him cult status among the young of more than one generation. Narcissus and Goldmund (1930) and The Glass Bead Game (1943; also published as Magister Ludi) concern duality and the conflict between the contemplative and the active life. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. His mysticism and his interest in self-realization kept him popular long after his death.

Learn more about Hesse, Hermann with a free trial on Britannica.com.

German Hessen

State (pop., 2002 est.: 6,077,826), west-central Germany. It occupies an area of 8,152 sq mi (21,114 sq km). Its capital is Wiesbaden. It was formed in 1945 through the amalgamation of former Prussian provincial units. The Hessians are thought to be descended from the Frankish tribe of the Chatti, who were Christianized by St. Boniface in the early 8th century AD. Hesse was twice partitioned in the 15th century, but Philip of Hesse reunited the territory. The area has small farms, and the state's industries are centred in the Rhine-Main area. The ruins of many castles and old churches and palaces are on the banks of the Weser River.

Learn more about Hesse with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hermann Hesse, 1957.

(born July 2, 1877, Calw, Ger.—died Aug. 9, 1962, Montagnola, Switz.) German novelist and poet. He left the seminary because of his inability to adapt to the life there. His first novel was Peter Camenzind (1904); it was followed by Beneath the Wheel (1906), Gertrud (1910), and Rosshalde (1914). An opponent of militarism, he settled permanently in Switzerland at the outbreak of World War I (1914–18). His later works deal with the individual's search for spiritual fulfillment, often through mysticism. Demian (1919), influenced by his experience with psychoanalysis, made him famous. Siddhartha (1922), about the early life of Buddha, reflects his interest in Eastern spiritualism. Steppenwolf (1927), which examines the conflict between bourgeois acceptance and spiritual self-realization, was highly influential in its time and brought him cult status among the young of more than one generation. Narcissus and Goldmund (1930) and The Glass Bead Game (1943; also published as Magister Ludi) concern duality and the conflict between the contemplative and the active life. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. His mysticism and his interest in self-realization kept him popular long after his death.

Learn more about Hesse, Hermann with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hesse (Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden. Hesse's largest city is nearby Frankfurt am Main. Hesse contributes the largest share to the Rhine Main Area.

Geography

Situated in west-central Germany, Hesse borders on the German states (starting from the northwest and proceeding clockwise) of North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Thuringia, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate.

The principal cities of Hesse include Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Offenbach, Hanau, Gießen, Wetzlar and Limburg in the greater Rhine Main Area, Fulda in the east, and Kassel and Marburg an der Lahn in the north.

The most important rivers in Hesse are the Fulda and Eder rivers in the north, the Lahn in the central part of Hesse, and the Main and Rhine in the south. The countryside is hilly and there are numerous mountain ranges, like the Rhön, the Westerwald, the Taunus, the Vogelsberg, the Knüll or the Spessart.

Most of the population of Hesse is in the southern part of Hesse in the Rhine Main Area. The Rhine borders Hesse on the southwest without running through the state, only one old arm – the so-called Alt-Rhein – runs through Hesse. The mountain range between the Main and the Neckar river is called the Odenwald. The plain in between the rivers Main, Rhine and Neckar, and the Odenwald mountains is called the Ried.

See also List of places in Hesse.

Hesse is divided into 21 districts and 5 independent cities:

  1. Bergstraße (Heppenheim)
  2. Darmstadt-Dieburg (Darmstadt, Ortsteil Kranichstein)
  3. Groß-Gerau (Groß-Gerau)
  4. Hochtaunuskreis (Bad Homburg)
  5. Main-Kinzig-Kreis (Gelnhausen)
  6. Main-Taunus-Kreis (Hofheim am Taunus)
  7. Odenwaldkreis (Erbach)
  8. Offenbach (Dietzenbach)
  9. Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis (Bad Schwalbach)
  10. Wetteraukreis (Friedberg)
  11. Gießen (Gießen)
  12. Lahn-Dill-Kreis (Wetzlar)
  13. Limburg-Weilburg (Limburg)

  1. Marburg-Biedenkopf (Marburg)
  2. Vogelsbergkreis (Lauterbach)

  3. Fulda (Fulda)
  4. Hersfeld-Rotenburg (Bad Hersfeld)
  5. Kassel (Kassel)
  6. Schwalm-Eder-Kreis (Homberg (Efze))
  7. Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Eschwege)
  8. Waldeck-Frankenberg (Korbach)

    Independent cities (with their acronyms, as used on vehicle registration plates):


History

An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid 5th century BC La Tène style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The region was later settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe in ca. the 1st century BC, and the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. In the early Middle Ages, a Frankish gau comprising an area around Fritzlar and Kassel and a Saxon one further north were known as Hessengau. In the 9th century the Saxon Hessengau also came under the rule of the Franconians. In the 12th century it was passed to Thuringia.

In the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247-64), Hesse gained its independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire. It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After Philip's death in 1567, the territory was divided up among his four sons from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines: Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels and the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands. Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in 1622, when Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late 16th century, Kassel adopted Calvinism, while Darmstadt remained Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years' War, when Darmstadt fought on the side of the Emperor, while Kassel sided with Sweden and France.

During the American Revolution, Great Britain hired mercenaries from Hesse, commonly known as Hessians, to fight the rebels in America.

Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the rank of an Electorate in 1803, but this remained without effect as the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded in 1806. The territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but restored to the Elector in 1813. While other Electors had gained other titles, becoming either Kings or Grand-dukes, the Elector of Hesse-Kassel alone retained the anachronistic dignity. The name survived in the term Kurhessen, denoting the region around Kassel. In 1866 it was annexed by Prussia, together with the Free City of Frankfurt, Hesse-Homburg and the duchy of Nassau, which established the province of Hesse-Nassau.

Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to the rank of a Grand Duchy in 1806. In the War of 1866, it fought on the side of Austria against Prussia, but retained its autonomy in defeat, because a greater part of the country was situated south of the Main river and Prussia did not dare to expand beyond the Main line as this might have provoked France. But the parts of Hesse-Darmstadt north of the Main river (the region around the town of Gießen, commonly called Oberhessen) were incorporated in the Norddeutscher Bund, a tight federation of German states, established by Prussia in 1867. In 1871 the rest of the Grand Duchy joined the German Empire. Around the turn of the century, Darmstadt was one of the centres of the Jugendstil. Until 1907, the Grand Duchy of Hesse used only the Hessian red and white lion as its coat-of-arms

The revolution of 1918 transformed Hesse-Darmstadt from a monarchy to a republic, which officially renamed itself to "Volksstaat Hessen" (People's State of Hesse). The parts of Hesse-Darmstadt on the western banks of the Rhine (province Rheinhessen) were occupied by French troops until 1930 under the terms of the Versailles peace treaty that officially ended WWI in 1919.

After World War II the Hessian territory left of the Rhine was again occupied by France, whereas the rest of the country was part of the US occupation zone. The French separated their part of Hesse from the rest of the country and incorporated it into the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The United States, on the other side, proclaimed the state of Greater Hesse (Groß-Hessen) on 19 September 1945, out of Hesse-Darmstadt and most of the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. On December 4, 1946 Groß-Hessen was officially renamed Hessen.

Name

The state is called Hessen in German and Hesse in English; the English name for the state was taken from French. An inhabitant of the state is a Hesse (masculine) or Hessin (feminine) in German and a Hessian in English (see Hessian (soldiers)). Occasionally the German term Hessen is also used in English. Hessia is another variant, although rarely used. Hesse refers to the Germanic tribe of the Chatti, who settled in the region in the first centuries B.C.

Politics

The Politics of Hesse takes place within a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Federal Government of Germany exercises sovereign rights with certain powers reserved to the states of Germany including Hesse. The state has a multi-party system where the two main parties are the rightist Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the leftist Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

In the Hesse state election of 2008, the outgoing Prime Minister, Roland Koch (CDU), lost his majority in the state diet (Landtag of Hesse).

State Anthem

The official state song of Hesse is called "Hessenlied" (Song of Hesse), but is not widely known. It was written by Carl Preser

"Ich kenne ein Land, so reich und so schön, voll goldener Ähren die Felder, dort grünen im Tal bis zu sonnigen Höh`n viel dunkele, duftige Wälder. Dort hab ich als Kind an der Mutter Hand in Blüten und Blumen gesessen. Ich grüß’ Dich, du Heimat, du herrliches Land, Herz Deutschlands, mein blühendes Hessenland.

Vom Main bis zur Weser, Werra und Lahn ein Land voller blühender Auen, dort glänzen die Städte, die wir alle sahn, sind herrlich im Lichte zu schauen. Dort hab ich als Kind an der Mutter Hand in Blüten und Blumen gesessen. Ich grüß’ Dich, du Heimat, du herrliches Land, Herz Deutschlands, mein blühendes Hessenland."

(1828-1910, text) and Albrecht Brede (1834-1920, melody).

TV & radio stations

Hessischer Rundfunk (HR) is the main ARD broadcaster in Hesse, providing a third TV programme as well as its local radio stations (HR 1, HR 2, HR 3, HR 4, you fm and HR info ). Other than HR, ZDF and other privately run TV stations flourish. Among the commercial radio stations that are active in Hesse are Hit Radio FFH, Planet Radio, Harmony FM, SKY Radio and Main FM.

Traffic and public transportation

Hesse has one of the best transportation infrastructures in Europe. Many trans-European and German interstate freeways cross Hesse as well as high-speed train lines and many important trans-European waterways. Frankfurt International Airport is Germany's biggest airport and the third largest in Europe (after London and Paris). Near the airport is the Frankfurter Kreuz, Europe's most important motorway junction, where the German autobahns A3 (Arnhem-Cologne-Frankfurt-Nuremberg-Passau) and A5 (Hattenbach-Frankfurt-Karlsruhe-Basel) meet. Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof is Germany's most important railway station.

Death penalty

The death penalty is still mentioned in the constitution of Hesse, as the Hessian constitution was ratified in 1946, when the death penalty was still part of the German penal code (and carried out as well). Because the 1949 federal constitution provides for the abolition of the death penalty (Art. 102) and because of the supremacy of the federal constitution (Art. 31, incidentally the two shortest articles in the whole constitution), the Hessian constitutional articles still mentioning the death penalty are de facto obsolete. Nonetheless, no politician has yet proposed to formally abolish the death penalty in Hesse because that would require a plebiscite.

Trivia

  • Locals from the area speak the Rhine Franconian dialect known as Hessisch.
  • The chemical element of Hassium is named for Hesse alongside with Darmstadtium for the Hessian City of Darmstadt.
  • Hesse is a sister state of Wisconsin, one of the states of the United States of America
  • During the 17th and 18th centuries thousands of Hessians fought in the American Revolution and other conflicts as soldiers of fortune (though usually conscripted, the pay going to their Lord) on both sides.

See also

References

External links

Search another word or see Hesseon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature