Definitions

Henri

Henri

[hen-ree]
Gaudier-Brzeska, Henri, 1891-1915, French sculptor. He was the chief exponent of vorticism in sculpture. Mainly self-taught in England and Germany, Gaudier showed exceptional precocity in his draftsmanship, animal figures, and abstract works such as The Dancer. Returning to France in 1910, he added the name of his Polish companion Sophie Brzeska to his own. Ezra Pound became his patron some time before Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in World War I at the age of 24. Several of his works are in the South Kensington Museum, London.

See his drawings and sculpture, introd. by M. Levey (1965); biography by H. S. Ede (1930); study by E. Pound (1916, repr. 1970).

Arnaud, Henri, 1641-1721, pastor and leader of the Waldenses. When Victor Amadeus II, duke of Savoy, in league with the French, set out to expel the Waldenses, Arnaud led (1686) a band of the Waldenses into Switzerland. In 1689 he led some of them back to their Piedmont valleys, where they withstood a combined French-Savoyard attack. In 1690, Victor Amadeus turned against the French, and Arnaud gained the favor of the duke and acted as his agent while the Waldenses fought on the side of the Savoyards and were repatriated. A new political turn sent Arnaud into exile again, and after 1699 he lived in Württemberg. He wrote an account of the return of the Waldenses, Histoire de la glorieuse rentrée des vaudois dans leurs vallées (1710, tr. 1827).
Pirenne, Henri, 1862-1935, Belgian historian. He was for many years a professor of history at the Univ. of Ghent. A leader of Belgian passive resistance in World War I, he was held (1916-18) as a hostage by the Germans. In his History of Belgium (tr., 7 vol., 1899-1932), he showed how traditional and economic forces had drawn Flemings and Walloons together. In Mohammed and Charlemagne (tr. 1939) he attributed the collapse of late Roman-Christian civilization to the spread of Islam; this thesis raised much controversy among historians. Pirenne emphasized the historical role of the capitalist middle class, and in Medieval Cities (tr. 1925) he revolutionized accepted views by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade. Other works include Belgian Democracy: Its Early History (tr. 1915) and Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe (tr. 1936).

See studies by A. F. Havighurst, ed. (rev. ed. 1969) and B. P. Lyon (1972).

Bourassa, Henri, 1868-1952, Canadian political leader and publisher, b. Montreal; grandson of Louis Joseph Papineau. He was elected as an Independent Liberal to the Canadian House of Commons in 1896 but resigned in 1899 in protest against sending Canadian troops to the South African War; he was almost immediately reelected. A man of oratorical and literary gifts, he rallied around him various groups discontented with the regime of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and welded them into a powerful opposition party in Quebec that became known as the Nationalist party; it took the stand that Canada should hold aloof from diplomatic entanglements with Great Britain and the United States. Opposing (1909-11) the bill to construct a Canadian navy, Bourassa withdrew enough support from Laurier to cause the fall of the government. In 1910 he founded, as the Nationalist journal, Le Devoir, a Montreal daily, and was its editor for many years. He led French Canadian opposition to participation in World War I, denouncing in violent terms the conscription act of 1917. His influence on Quebec's politics can still be in seen in the Parti Québécois, which advocates separation and nationalism for Quebec.

See studies by C. Murrow (1968) and J. Levitt (1969).

Cernuschi, Henri, 1821-96, Italian politician and economist. A strong republican, he was a leader in the Milan revolt of 1848 in support of Giuseppe Garibaldi. In 1850 he went to France, where he became a director of the Bank of France. Cernuschi vigorously advocated bimetallism and is said to have coined the word. His writings include many pamphlets on the subject, notably Silver Vindicated (1876).
Didon, Henri, 1840-1900, French Dominican preacher and writer. He became known as an eloquent preacher, especially for his eulogy on Archbishop Darboy. He was sent to Corsica by the Dominicans (1880-87) because he was suspected of leaning toward modernistic ideas. His life of Jesus, which was widely read, appeared in 1890. His Lent and Advent series of sermons were tremendously popular.
Grégoire, Henri, 1750-1831, French priest, writer, and revolutionist. A Jansenist (see under Jansen, Cornelis), he was prominent in the States-General of 1789 and supported the union of the lower clergy with the third estate. He fought clerical and noble privilege and proposed abolition of the law of primogeniture. Grégoire took the oath of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (even though it was condemned by the pope) and became constitutional bishop of Blois in 1791. He maintained his religious beliefs throughout the Terror and fought for religious freedom under the Directory. As a senator under the Consulate, he opposed the Concordat of 1801 and, resigning his see, became a simple priest. Although he opposed the empire, Napoleon I made him a count. In 1819 he was elected to the chamber of deputies but, as a radical and a dissident priest, was refused his seat. Grégoire died in poverty; his burial was the scene of a great liberal demonstration. His writings, some of which have been translated, deal chiefly with Jansenism, racial equality, and international cooperation.
Labrouste, Henri, 1801-75, French architect. He was among the first to make effective architectural use of metal construction, as in his treatment of the reading room of the Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève (1843-50), Paris, in which the ceiling domes were supported upon an exposed iron framework. Labrouste also made extensive alterations on the Bibliothèque nationale.
La Fontaine, Henri, 1854-1943, Belgian jurist and statesman. A senator from 1894 to 1936, he headed the International Peace Bureau from 1907 and was awarded the 1913 Nobel Peace Prize. His writings on international law were extensive.
Bergson, Henri, 1859-1941, French philosopher. He became a professor at the Collège de France in 1900, devoted some time to politics, and, after World War I, took an interest in international affairs. He is well known for his brilliant and imaginative philosophical works, which won him the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature. Among his works that have been translated into English are Time and Free Will (1889), Matter and Memory (1896), Laughter (1901), Introduction to Metaphysics (1903), Creative Evolution (1907), The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (1932), and The Creative Mind (1934). Bergson's philosophy is dualistic—the world contains two opposing tendencies—the life force (élan vital) and the resistance of the material world against that force. Human beings know matter through their intellect, with which they measure the world. They formulate the doctrines of science and see things as entities set out as separate units within space. In contrast with intellect is intuition, which derives from the instinct of lower animals. Intuition gives us an intimation of the life force which pervades all becoming. Intuition perceives the reality of time—that it is duration directed in terms of life and not divisible or measurable. Duration is demonstrated by the phenomena of memory.

See H. W. Carr, The Philosophy of Change (1914, repr. 1970); H. M. Kallen, William James and Henri Bergson (1914); P. A. Y. Gunter, Bergson and the Evolution of Physics (1969); L. Kołakowski, Bergson (1985); G. Deleuze, Bergsonism (tr. 1988).

Focillon, Henri, 1881-1943, French art historian. Focillon, who was professor of art history at the Collège de France, was an authority on medieval art, the subject of his two-volume treatise Art of the West in the Middle Ages (2d ed. 1969). His book Life Forms in Art (1934) outlines his formal, organic conception of the art historical method, stressing analysis of style and technique over subjective interpretation.
Frankfort, Henri, 1897-1954, American archaeologist, b. the Netherlands. He directed the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Society (1925-29) and the Iraq expeditions (1929-37) of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago at Tell Asmar and Khorsabad. From 1932 to 1949 he taught at the Oriental Institute, and in 1949 he was appointed director of the Warburg Institute of the Univ. of London. Frankfort became an American citizen in 1944. His writings include Ancient Egyptian Religion (1948), The Birth of Civilization in the Near East (1951), and The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (1954, rev. ed. 1958).
Rousseau, Henri, 1844-1910, French primitive painter, b. Laval. He was entirely self-taught, and his work remained consistently naive and imaginative. Rousseau was called Le Douanier [the customs officer] because he held a minor post in the Paris customs service for more than 20 years before he retired to paint (1893). Although he claimed to have lived in Mexico in his youth, he later admitted that the claim was false. The only tropical vegetation Rousseau ever saw was in Parisian greenhouses, and his remarkable landscapes had no counterpart in nature. His painted jungles are an organized profusion of carefully defined yet fantastic plants, half-concealing various wild animals with startlingly staring eyes. These scenes are rendered in a vivid, almost hypnotic folk style. The finest ones include The Snake Charmer (1907; Louvre) and The Dream (1910; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). With the same approach Rousseau employed in painting the familiar (e.g., Village Street Scene, 1909; Philadelphia Mus. of Art), he painted the haunting and dreamlike Sleeping Gypsy (1897; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). His fantastic Gypsy sleeps in a nighttime desert, closely observed by a lion—the entire absurdity rendered in a compelling, straightforward manner. The painting thus combines the unique elements of Rousseau's art to their most startling effect. Rousseau exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants from 1886, but did not become well known until the early years of the 20th cent. when he was "taken up" by Picasso, Apollinaire, and other members of the Parisian avant garde.

See R. Shattuck, The Banquet Years (1958, repr. 1968); studies by D. Vallier (1964), D. C. Rich (1946, repr. 1970), G. Adriani (2001), and F. Morris, C. Green, and N. Ireson, ed. (2006).

Pousseur, Henri, 1929-, Belgian composer, b. Malmédy. Pousseur is considered the leader of the Belgian avant-garde. He studied composition with André Souris and Pierre Boulez and worked with Karl Heinz Stockhausen, Luciano Berio, and Bruno Maderna in electronic music. Pousseur has composed for both traditional and electronic instruments. Among his works are Seismogrammes (1953) for magnetic tape, Mobile (1958) for two pianos, Electre (1960), an electronic ballet, and Votre Faust, an opera with variable plot, libretto by Michel Butor (1969).

See his Musique, sémantique, société (1974).

Vieuxtemps, Henri, 1820-81, Belgian violinist and composer. He toured Europe and the United States and taught in St. Petersburg (1846-51), where he was also court violinist, and at the Brussels Conservatory (1871-73). His six violin concertos are still in the standard repertory.
Troyat, Henri, 1911-2007, French novelist and biographer, b. Moscow as Lev Aslanovich Tarassov. He and his family fled the Russian Revolution and settled (1911) in Paris. He was the author of numerous historical novels (including the cycle Tant que la terre durera [while the earth endures], 1946-48) and biographies of famous Russians, including Tolstoy (1965, tr. 1967), and Ivan the Terrible (1982, tr. 1986). One of France's most popular and prolific authors, Troyat, who wrote a total of 105 books, is especially noted for the lucidity of his prose. He was elected to the Académie Française in 1959.

See his autobiographical novel, Aliocha (1991); study by N. Hewitt (1984).

Matisse, Henri, 1869-1954, French painter, sculptor, and lithographer. Along with Picasso, Matisse is considered one of the two foremost artists of the modern period. His contribution to 20th-century art is inestimably great.

Matisse began to study law and, during an illness in 1890, took up painting, thereafter forsaking law entirely. He studied first with the academician Bouguereau and then with Gustave Moreau, in whose studio he met many painters who would soon attain prominence with him in the fauvist movement. Matisse's earliest work was exceptionally mature. He explored impressionism (e.g., La Desserte, 1897; Niarchos Coll., Athens) and, coming into contact with the theories of Paul Signac, drew upon neoimpressionist styles as in Luxe, calme et volupté (c.1905; private coll.). To learn aspects of composition he made variations on the works of the old masters in the Louvre, a practice he continued for many years (e.g., Variation on a Still Life by de Heem, c.1915; S. A. Marx Coll., Chicago).

Matisse began exhibiting in 1896 and at first was unsuccessful. In 1905 at Collioure, a Mediterranean village, he began using pure primary color as a significant structural element. His portrait of Mme Matisse, known as The Green Line (1905; State Mus., Copenhagen), exemplifies this abstract, intellectual use of color. In 1905 he exhibited at the Salon d'automne with the group of artists called fauves [Fr.,=wild beasts], so named for their remarkable, exuberant use of color. Matisse became a leader of fauvism, delighting in vivid color for its sensual and decorative value.

After the demise of fauvism Matisse continued to use color to communicate his joy in bold pattern and striking ornament, e.g., in The Moorish Screen (1921; Phila. Mus. of Art) and Lady in Blue (1937; private coll.). He experimented frequently with different sorts of expressive abstraction, as in The Blue Nude (1907; Baltimore Mus. of Art), Mlle Landsberg (1914; Phila. Mus. of Art), and The Piano Lesson (1916; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City), but he rejected cubism in order to develop his own ideas. In 1908 Matisse wrote out his theories for La Grande Revue; he wished, if possible, to paint a visual representation of his emotional reaction to a subject rather than its realistic appearance. By 1909 the artist's fame was worldwide.

Matisse's early sculpture reveals an interest in African art and in Rodin. Matisse designed for the ballet (1920, 1938) and illustrated works by Mallarmé (1932) and Baudelaire (1944), among many others. His superbly simple line drawings rank among the greatest works of graphic art of the 20th cent. In his last years he also made brilliant paper cutouts and stencils (e.g., Jazz, 1947; Philadelphia Mus. of Art), as gay and as strong in design as his earliest work. When he was nearly 80, Matisse volunteered to decorate the Dominican nuns' chapel at Vence, France. His fresh and joyous works for the chapel include black-and-white murals, semiabstract stained-glass windows, a stone altar, a bronze cross, carved doors, and an array of colorful vestments. His work on the chapel was completed in 1951, and Matisse declared it his masterpiece.

The largest collections of Matisse's works are in the Baltimore Museum of Art; Art Institute of Chicago; Museum of Modern Art, New York City; and the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

See catalog from his retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City (1992); biography by H. Spurling (2 vol., 1998-2005); J. Russell, Matisse: Father and Son (1999); studies by J. Guichard-Meili (tr. 1967) and L. Aragon (2 vol., tr. 1972).

Milne-Edwards, Henri, 1800-1885, French naturalist. He became professor at the Sorbonne (1843) and served at the Museum of Natural History, Paris, as professor (from 1841) and director (from 1864). He wrote important works on the crustaceans, mollusks, and corals and a noted textbook on zoology (1834). His principal work was a series on comparative anatomy and physiology (14 vol., 1857-81).
Christophe, Henri, 1767-1820, Haitian revolutionary leader. A freed black slave, he aided Toussaint L'Ouverture in the liberation of Haiti and was army chief under Dessalines. When the latter declared himself emperor, Christophe took part (1806) in a successful plot against his life and was elected president of the republic. Christophe, a pure-blooded black, then waged a savage and inconclusive struggle with Alexandre Pétion, the champion of mulatto supremacy, who retained control of S Haiti. In 1811, entrenching himself in N Haiti, Christophe declared himself king as Henri I and entered upon an energetic but tyrannical reign. He created an autocracy patterned after the absolute monarchies of Europe. Compulsory labor enriched his fiefdom. Christophe surrounded himself with lavish, and sometimes ludicrous, magnificence; the pomp and splendor of his reign are still shown by the ruins of the citadel of La Ferrière, a formidable fortress on top of a mountain, surrounded by precipitous cliffs, and of the fabulous palace of Sans Souci, at Cap Haïtien, his capital. In 1820, when he was suffering from partial paralysis, revolts broke out. In despair, Christophe committed suicide.

See his correspondence with T. Clarkson, ed. by E. L. Griggs and C. H. Prator (1952, repr. 1968); biography by H. Cole (1967); C. Moran, Black Triumvirate: A Study of L'Ouverture, Dessalines, Christophe (1957).

Monnier, Henri, 1799-1877, French lithographer and writer. His work became popular (c.1825) when he illustrated La Fontaine's Fables with pen drawings. He wrote and illustrated three series of Scènes populaires (1830, 1835, 1862), books of satiric sketches about the people of his day, in which he introduced the imaginary characters Mme Gibou and M. Joseph Prudhomme. Their history was continued in his best-known work, Mémoires de Monsieur Joseph Prudhomme (1857), a collection of cartoons, with some text. Some of his numerous plays also concerned themselves with these characters.
Montmorency, Henri, duc de, the elder, 1534-1614, constable of France; younger son of Anne de Montmorency. He was known as Henri, comte de Damville, before 1579. He took Louis I de Condé prisoner at Dreux (1562). In 1563 he succeeded his father as governor of Languedoc and in 1567 was made a marshal. A zealous Roman Catholic and adherent of the Guise family until his father's death, he was led by the subsequent decline of his family's fortunes and by the murder of his relative Gaspard de Coligny to associate himself with the moderates who favored a rapprochement with the Huguenots. He resisted royal efforts to remove him from Languedoc, where he was practically an independent sovereign; he was in alliance with the Huguenots from 1575 to 1577, but thereafter remained aloof from both parties, while attempting to bring about their conciliation. He adhered to King Henry IV in 1593 and became constable. After Henry's death (1610) he retired to his province.
Montmorency, Henri, duc de, the younger, 1595-1632, admiral and marshal of France; son of the elder Henri de Montmorency. He became governor of Languedoc in 1613 and fought in the religious and foreign wars of Louis XIII's reign. In 1632 he joined in a conspiracy of Gaston d'Orléans against Cardinal Richelieu and was captured and executed.
Cartan, Henri: see under Cartan, Élie Joseph.
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1908-2004, French photojournalist, b. Chanteloup, near Paris. Cartier-Bresson is renowned for his countless memorable images of 20th-century individuals and events. After studying painting and being influenced by surrealism, he began (1931) a career in photography. Achieved with the simplest of techniques, his works are remarkable for their flawless composition, for their capture of what has been called "the decisive moment" in a situation, and for the sense they convey of the rush of time arrested. His photographs, characteristically taken with a 35-mm camera, are uncropped and unmanipulated. Cartier-Bresson witnessed and photographed many of his era's most historic events, from the Spanish Civil War, to the partition of India, the Chinese revolution, and France's 1968 student rebellion. He made numerous photographs of the German occupation of France and in 1944, after escaping from a Nazi prison camp, organized underground photography units. He was the author of many photographic books including The Decisive Moment (1952), People of Moscow (1955), China in Transition (1956), The World of Henri Cartier-Bresson (1968), The Face of Asia (1972), About Russia (1974), and the retrospective Henri Cartier-Bresson: Photographer (1992). A founder (1947) of the Magnum photo agency, he virtually retired from photography in the early 1970s and thenceforth largely devoted himself to drawing.

See his The Mind's Eye: Writings on Photography and Photographers (1999); F. Nourissier, Cartier-Bresson's France (tr. 1971); P. Galassi, Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Early Work (1987); J.-P. Montier, Henri Cartier Bresson and the Artless Art (1996); P. Arbaizer et al., Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Man, the Image and the World: A Retrospective (2003).

Breuil, Henri, known as Abbé Breuil, 1877-1961, French archaeologist, paleontologist, and cleric. He taught at the Institut de paléontologie humaine, Paris, after 1910. During much of his lifetime, Breuil was considered the foremost authority on Paleolithic cave art. He copied and published hundreds of examples of rock carvings and paintings from Europe and Africa and advanced the first well-informed interpretations of the significance of prehistoric art. His principal work is Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art (tr. 1952).

See biography by A. H. Brodrick (1963).

Duparc, Henri, 1848-1933, French composer. Duparc studied piano with César Franck and became one of his first composition pupils. A nervous disorder caused him to cease composing in 1885. He spent the rest of his life in Switzerland. Extremely self-critical, Duparc destroyed many of his works, so that only a handful remain. His fame rests entirely on the 14 beautiful songs he wrote between 1868 and 1884.

See S. Northcote, The Songs of Henri Duparc (1949).

Rohan, Henri, duc de, 1579-1638, French Protestant general; son-in-law of the duc de Sully. A leader of the Huguenots, Rohan took up arms against the French government in 1621-22 as a consequence of the reestablishment of Roman Catholicism in Béarn. With his brother, Benjamin de Soubise, Rohan led revolts in Languedoc and the Cévennes in 1625-26 and again in 1627-29 but was forced to submit to King Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, in the Peace of Alais (1629). He retired to Venice. In 1635 he was chosen by Richelieu to command the French troops in the Valtellina, which he subdued. Treachery and weak official support forced his retreat in 1637. Rohan subsequently joined the army of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and was killed at Rheinfelden during the Thirty Years War. He left memoirs (1644, enl. ed. 1646, tr. 1660) and other writings.
Damville, Henri, comte de: see Montmorency, Henri, duc de, the elder.
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929, American painter and teacher, b. Cincinnati as Robert Henry Cozad. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1888 he went to Paris, where he worked at Julian's and the Beaux-Arts until, dissatisfied with the schools, he set up his own studio. In 1891 he returned to Philadelphia. As a member of the group of artists known as the Eight, he participated in the rebellion against academic art. Henri became one of the foremost American art teachers. First in Philadelphia, then at the Chase School in New York City, at his own school (1909-12), and at the Art Students League he inspired his students with his dynamic concept of art. Opposed to the formalization of style, he viewed art as a medium to express life and especially humanity. Among his pupils were George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, and Edward Hopper. In his own work, Henri excelled in dramatic portraits. Characteristic are his Spanish Gypsy (Metropolitan Mus.); Young Woman in Black, Himself, and Herself (Art Inst., Chicago); and Girl with a Fan (Pennsylvania Acad. of the Fine Arts).

See his Art Spirit (1960); study by W. I. Homer (1969).

(born Aug. 1, 1936, Oran, Alg.—died June 1, 2008, Paris, France) Algerian-born French fashion designer. He left for Paris after secondary school to pursue a fashion career and at 17 was hired as Christian Dior's assistant. When Dior died four years later, he was named head of the House of Dior. In 1962 he opened his own fashion house and quickly emerged as one of the world's most influential designers. He popularized trousers for women for both city and country wear. Metallic and transparent fabrics were prominent in his late '60s collections; in the 1970s, inspired by ethnic costume, he introduced the haute peasant look. During the 1960s and '70s his enterprises expanded to include ready-to-wear licenses, accessories, household linens, fragrances, and men's clothes in addition to his couture business. He retired in 2002.

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orig. Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne

Turenne, detail of a portrait by Charles Le Brun; in the Musée National de Versailles et des elipsis

(born Sept. 11, 1611, Sedan, France—died July 27, 1675, Sasbach, Baden-Baden) French military leader. He earned his reputation as a military leader in the Thirty Years' War, especially with the capture of Turin (1640). Made a marshal of France (1643), he commanded the French army in Germany and joined the Swedish army in conquering Bavaria (1648). In France he joined the aristocrats in the Fronde (1649), but later he skillfully commanded the royal army to defeat the forces led by the prince de Condé, who had allied himself with Spain, and to bring about the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which ended France's war with Spain. Appointed marshal-general (1660), Turenne marched alongside Louis XIV in joint command of the French armies in the War of Devolution (1667–68). His bold strategies won numerous victories against the imperial army in Germany (1672–75), but he was killed in action at Sasbach. He was buried with the kings of France at Saint-Denis and later moved to the Invalides by Napoleon, who esteemed Turenne as the greatest military leader in history.

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(born Nov. 24, 1864, Albi, France—died Sept. 9, 1901, Malromé) French painter and graphic artist. Born to an old aristocratic family, he developed his interest in art during lengthy convalescence after both his legs were fractured in separate accidents (1878, 1879) that left them permanently stunted and made walking difficult. In 1881 he resolved to become an artist; after taking instruction, he established a studio in the Montmartre district of Paris in 1884 and began his lifelong association with the area's cafés, cabarets, entertainers, and artists. He captured the effect of the movement of dancers, circus performers, and other entertainers by simplifying outlines and juxtaposing intense colours; the result was an art throbbing with life and energy. His lithographs were among his most powerful works, and his memorable posters helped define the possibilities of the genre. His pieces are often sharply satirical, but he was also capable of great sympathy, seen most poignantly in his studies of prostitutes (e.g., At the Salon, 1896). His extraordinary style helped set the course of avant-garde art for decades to come. A heavy drinker, he died at 36.

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Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

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(born Aug. 1, 1936, Oran, Alg.—died June 1, 2008, Paris, France) Algerian-born French fashion designer. He left for Paris after secondary school to pursue a fashion career and at 17 was hired as Christian Dior's assistant. When Dior died four years later, he was named head of the House of Dior. In 1962 he opened his own fashion house and quickly emerged as one of the world's most influential designers. He popularized trousers for women for both city and country wear. Metallic and transparent fabrics were prominent in his late '60s collections; in the 1970s, inspired by ethnic costume, he introduced the haute peasant look. During the 1960s and '70s his enterprises expanded to include ready-to-wear licenses, accessories, household linens, fragrances, and men's clothes in addition to his couture business. He retired in 2002.

Learn more about Saint Laurent, Yves (-Henri-Donat-Mathieu) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Le Douanier Rousseau

(born May 21, 1844, Laval, Fr.—died Sept. 2, 1910, Paris) French painter. After service in the army, he began working as a toll collector (not as a douanier, or customs officer, the epithet his friends later used) but found time to paint and draw. Completely self-taught, he exhibited some early paintings, including Carnival Evening, at the Salon des Indépendants in 1886. Like his later works, it is typical of naive art: everything is drawn literally, the clouds look solid, and the costumes receive more attention than the figures themselves. It nonetheless achieves a striking mood and mystery. In 1893 he retired to devote himself to painting, and in 1894 his War won him his first recognition by the avant-garde. His best-known works are richly coloured images of lush jungles, wild beasts, and exotic figures. He exhibited The Hungry Lion with the Fauves in 1905. He died a pauper; only after his death was his greatness recognized.

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(born May 27, 1871, Paris, Fr.—died Feb. 13, 1958, Paris) French painter. His apprenticeship in a glazier's shop restoring medieval stained glass (1885–90) influenced his mature style as a painter. After an early academic period, his style evolved toward Fauvism before he established a highly personal form of Expressionism. An ardent Roman Catholic, he painted subjects apparently fallen from grace—prostitutes, tragic clowns, and pitiless judges. After 1914 his subject matter became more specifically religious, with greater emphasis on redemption, and he shifted from watercolour to oil. His layers of paint became thick and rich, his forms simplified, and his colours and black lines reminiscent of stained glass. In the 1930s he produced a splendid series on Christ's Passion, while reworking many earlier paintings. His series of clowns in the 1940s are virtual self-portraits. He also produced many engravings as well as ceramics, tapestry designs, and stained glass.

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(born 1579, Château of Blain, Brittany, France—died April 13, 1638, Königsfeld, Switz.) French Huguenot leader. At age 16 he entered the army of Henry IV, who made him a peer of France in 1603. After Henry's death (1610), Rohan led the Huguenots in revolt against the government of Marie de Médicis (1615–16) and became the Huguenots' foremost general in the civil wars of the 1620s. He recounted the events of the War of La Rochelle (1627–29) in his celebrated Mémoires. He then went to Venice. After his return to France (1635), he successfully commanded a French expedition against the Habsburgs in Lombardy. In 1637 he went to Switzerland, where he died in the Thirty Years' War battle at Rheinfelden.

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orig. Robert Henry Cozad

(born June 25, 1865, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 12, 1929, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and Paris, taught art in Philadelphia, and, after settling in New York City in 1900, became the leader of the young realist artists known as The Eight. He exhibited with The Eight in 1908 and later at the Armory Show (1913). As a portrait painter he demonstrated facile brushwork, lively colours, and an ability to catch fleeting gestures and expressions. He is best remembered as a teacher, principally at New York's Art Students League (1915–28), where he became one of the most influential art teachers in the U.S. and a powerful force in turning young artists away from academicism and toward the rich subject matter of modern city life. His belief in the artist as a social force led to the formation of the Ash Can school.

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(born Dec. 31, 1869, Le Cateau, Picardy, Fr.—died Nov. 2, 1954, Nice) French painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. He was a law clerk when he became interested in art. After study with Gustave Moreau at the École des Beaux-Arts, he exhibited four paintings at the Salon and scored a triumph when the government bought his Woman Reading (1895). Self-confident and venturesome, he experimented with pointillism but eventually abandoned it in favour of the swirls of spontaneous brushwork and riots of colour that became known as Fauvism. Though his subjects were largely domestic and figurative, his works exhibit a distinctive Mediterranean verve. He also took up sculpture and would produce some 60 pieces during his lifetime. The Armory Show exhibited 13 of his paintings. In 1917 he moved to the French Riviera, where his paintings became less daring but his output remained prodigious. After 1939 he became increasingly active as a graphic artist and in 1947 published Jazz, a book of reflections on art and life with brilliantly coloured illustrations made by “drawing with scissors”: the motifs were pasted together after being cut out of sheets of coloured paper. He was ill during most of his last 13 years; he designed the magnificent Chapelle du Rosaire at Vence (1948–51) as a gift to the Dominican nuns who cared for him. His well-known paintings include Joy of Life (1906), The Red Studio (1915), Piano Lesson (1916), and The Dance I and The Dance II (1931–33).

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orig. Robert Henry Cozad

(born June 25, 1865, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 12, 1929, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and Paris, taught art in Philadelphia, and, after settling in New York City in 1900, became the leader of the young realist artists known as The Eight. He exhibited with The Eight in 1908 and later at the Armory Show (1913). As a portrait painter he demonstrated facile brushwork, lively colours, and an ability to catch fleeting gestures and expressions. He is best remembered as a teacher, principally at New York's Art Students League (1915–28), where he became one of the most influential art teachers in the U.S. and a powerful force in turning young artists away from academicism and toward the rich subject matter of modern city life. His belief in the artist as a social force led to the formation of the Ash Can school.

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orig. Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne

Turenne, detail of a portrait by Charles Le Brun; in the Musée National de Versailles et des elipsis

(born Sept. 11, 1611, Sedan, France—died July 27, 1675, Sasbach, Baden-Baden) French military leader. He earned his reputation as a military leader in the Thirty Years' War, especially with the capture of Turin (1640). Made a marshal of France (1643), he commanded the French army in Germany and joined the Swedish army in conquering Bavaria (1648). In France he joined the aristocrats in the Fronde (1649), but later he skillfully commanded the royal army to defeat the forces led by the prince de Condé, who had allied himself with Spain, and to bring about the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which ended France's war with Spain. Appointed marshal-general (1660), Turenne marched alongside Louis XIV in joint command of the French armies in the War of Devolution (1667–68). His bold strategies won numerous victories against the imperial army in Germany (1672–75), but he was killed in action at Sasbach. He was buried with the kings of France at Saint-Denis and later moved to the Invalides by Napoleon, who esteemed Turenne as the greatest military leader in history.

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known as Le Douanier Rousseau

(born May 21, 1844, Laval, Fr.—died Sept. 2, 1910, Paris) French painter. After service in the army, he began working as a toll collector (not as a douanier, or customs officer, the epithet his friends later used) but found time to paint and draw. Completely self-taught, he exhibited some early paintings, including Carnival Evening, at the Salon des Indépendants in 1886. Like his later works, it is typical of naive art: everything is drawn literally, the clouds look solid, and the costumes receive more attention than the figures themselves. It nonetheless achieves a striking mood and mystery. In 1893 he retired to devote himself to painting, and in 1894 his War won him his first recognition by the avant-garde. His best-known works are richly coloured images of lush jungles, wild beasts, and exotic figures. He exhibited The Hungry Lion with the Fauves in 1905. He died a pauper; only after his death was his greatness recognized.

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(born Aug. 22, 1908, Chanteloup, Fr.—died Aug. 3, 2004, Céreste) French photographer. He studied art in Paris and literature and painting at the University of Cambridge. His interest in photography developed circa 1930 when he encountered the works of Eugène Atget and Man Ray. He is known for spontaneous, sequential images in still photography, a technique inspired by his enthusiasm for filmmaking. He helped establish photojournalism as an art form and with Robert Capa, David Seymour, and others founded the cooperative Magnum Photos (1947). The best known of his many collections is The Decisive Moment (1952).

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Henri Bergson, 1928.

(born Oct. 15, 1859, Paris, France—died Jan. 4, 1941, Paris) French philosopher. In Creative Evolution (1907), he argued that evolution, which he accepted as scientific fact, is not mechanistic but driven by an élan vital (“vital impulse”). He was the first to elaborate a process philosophy, rejecting static values and embracing dynamic values such as motion, change, and evolution. His writing style has been widely admired for its grace and lucidity; he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Very popular in his time, he remains influential in France.

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(born Dec. 31, 1869, Le Cateau, Picardy, Fr.—died Nov. 2, 1954, Nice) French painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. He was a law clerk when he became interested in art. After study with Gustave Moreau at the École des Beaux-Arts, he exhibited four paintings at the Salon and scored a triumph when the government bought his Woman Reading (1895). Self-confident and venturesome, he experimented with pointillism but eventually abandoned it in favour of the swirls of spontaneous brushwork and riots of colour that became known as Fauvism. Though his subjects were largely domestic and figurative, his works exhibit a distinctive Mediterranean verve. He also took up sculpture and would produce some 60 pieces during his lifetime. The Armory Show exhibited 13 of his paintings. In 1917 he moved to the French Riviera, where his paintings became less daring but his output remained prodigious. After 1939 he became increasingly active as a graphic artist and in 1947 published Jazz, a book of reflections on art and life with brilliantly coloured illustrations made by “drawing with scissors”: the motifs were pasted together after being cut out of sheets of coloured paper. He was ill during most of his last 13 years; he designed the magnificent Chapelle du Rosaire at Vence (1948–51) as a gift to the Dominican nuns who cared for him. His well-known paintings include Joy of Life (1906), The Red Studio (1915), Piano Lesson (1916), and The Dance I and The Dance II (1931–33).

Learn more about Matisse, Henri (-Émile-Benoǐt) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Henri Bergson, 1928.

(born Oct. 15, 1859, Paris, France—died Jan. 4, 1941, Paris) French philosopher. In Creative Evolution (1907), he argued that evolution, which he accepted as scientific fact, is not mechanistic but driven by an élan vital (“vital impulse”). He was the first to elaborate a process philosophy, rejecting static values and embracing dynamic values such as motion, change, and evolution. His writing style has been widely admired for its grace and lucidity; he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Very popular in his time, he remains influential in France.

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(born 1579, Château of Blain, Brittany, France—died April 13, 1638, Königsfeld, Switz.) French Huguenot leader. At age 16 he entered the army of Henry IV, who made him a peer of France in 1603. After Henry's death (1610), Rohan led the Huguenots in revolt against the government of Marie de Médicis (1615–16) and became the Huguenots' foremost general in the civil wars of the 1620s. He recounted the events of the War of La Rochelle (1627–29) in his celebrated Mémoires. He then went to Venice. After his return to France (1635), he successfully commanded a French expedition against the Habsburgs in Lombardy. In 1637 he went to Switzerland, where he died in the Thirty Years' War battle at Rheinfelden.

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(born May 27, 1871, Paris, Fr.—died Feb. 13, 1958, Paris) French painter. His apprenticeship in a glazier's shop restoring medieval stained glass (1885–90) influenced his mature style as a painter. After an early academic period, his style evolved toward Fauvism before he established a highly personal form of Expressionism. An ardent Roman Catholic, he painted subjects apparently fallen from grace—prostitutes, tragic clowns, and pitiless judges. After 1914 his subject matter became more specifically religious, with greater emphasis on redemption, and he shifted from watercolour to oil. His layers of paint became thick and rich, his forms simplified, and his colours and black lines reminiscent of stained glass. In the 1930s he produced a splendid series on Christ's Passion, while reworking many earlier paintings. His series of clowns in the 1940s are virtual self-portraits. He also produced many engravings as well as ceramics, tapestry designs, and stained glass.

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(born June 7, 1848, Paris, France—died May 8, 1903, Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia) French painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He spent his childhood in Lima (his mother was a Peruvian Creole). From circa 1872 to 1883 he was a successful stockbroker in Paris. He met Camille Pissarro about 1875, and he exhibited several times with the Impressionists. Disillusioned with bourgeois materialism, in 1886 he moved to Pont-Aven, Brittany, where he became the central figure of a group of artists known as the Pont-Aven school. Gauguin coined the term “Synthetism” to describe his style during this period, referring to the synthesis of his paintings' formal elements with the idea or emotion they conveyed. Late in October 1888 Gauguin traveled to Arles, in the south of France, to stay with Vincent van Gogh. The style of the two men's work from this period has been classified as Post-Impressionist because it shows an individual, personal development of Impressionism's use of colour, brushstroke, and nontraditional subject matter. Increasingly focused on rejecting the materialism of contemporary culture in favour of a more spiritual, unfettered lifestyle, in 1891 he moved to Tahiti. His works became open protests against materialism. He was an influential innovator; Fauvism owed much to his use of colour, and he inspired Pablo Picasso and the development of Cubism.

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(born Jan. 21, 1848, Paris, France—died Feb. 12, 1933, Mont-de-Marsan) French song composer. He studied music with César Franck while also studying law. His composing career lasted about 16 years; he stopped composing at age 36 for psychological reasons. Highly self-critical, he destroyed an incomplete opera and other works and acknowledged only 13 completed songs, including “L'Invitation au voyage,” “Phidylé,” “Testament,” and “Extase,” as his lifetime oeuvre. Almost all the songs, universally admired, were originally for voice and piano; he later orchestrated eight of them.

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(born Oct. 25, 1767, Lausanne, Switz.—died Dec. 8, 1830, Paris, France) French-Swiss novelist and political writer. He had a tumultuous 12-year relationship with Germaine de Staël, whose views influenced him to support the French Revolution and subsequently to oppose Napoleon, for which he was exiled (1803–14). He later served in the Chamber of Deputies (1819–30). Adolphe (1816) was a forerunner of the modern psychological novel. Among his other works are the long historical analysis of religious feeling De la Religion, 5 vol. (1824–31) and his revealing journals (first complete publication, 1952).

Learn more about Constant (de Rebecque), (Henri-) Benjamin with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 22, 1908, Chanteloup, Fr.—died Aug. 3, 2004, Céreste) French photographer. He studied art in Paris and literature and painting at the University of Cambridge. His interest in photography developed circa 1930 when he encountered the works of Eugène Atget and Man Ray. He is known for spontaneous, sequential images in still photography, a technique inspired by his enthusiasm for filmmaking. He helped establish photojournalism as an art form and with Robert Capa, David Seymour, and others founded the cooperative Magnum Photos (1947). The best known of his many collections is The Decisive Moment (1952).

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Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

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Henri V of France and Navarre (Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois de FranceSeptember 29, 1820August 24, 1883), best known by his title comte de Chambord was Duke of Bordeaux and Count of Chambord, was disputedly King of France and Navarre from 2 August to 9, 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883.

Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies, daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the king, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France.

Birth and youth

He was born September 29, 1820, in the pavillon de Marsan, part of the Tuileries Palace which still survives in the Louvre in Paris. Henri's father, the duc de Berry, had been assassinated seven months before his birth. At the actual moment of Henri's birth, no member of the French court was present in the room; this enabled the supporters of the duc d'Orléans to later claim that Henri was not in fact a French prince.

At birth, Henri was given the title of duc de Bordeaux. Because of his posthumous birth when the senior line of the Bourbon dynasty appeared about to become extinct, he was popularly known as the Dieudonné or "God-given" baby. Royalists called him "the miracle child".

On 2 August, 1830, in response to the July Revolution, Henri's grandfather Charles X abdicated, and twenty minutes later Charles' elder son the Dauphin also abdicated in favor of the young duc de Bordeaux. Henri was immediately proclaimed Henri V, King of France and Navarre. However, after a fictive reign of only seven days, the National Assembly decreed that the throne should pass to the Regent, his distant cousin, the duc d'Orléans, who became Louis-Philippe, King of the French on August 9.

Exile

Henri and his family left France and went into exile, August 16, 1830. While some French monarchists recognized him as their sovereign, others disputed the validity of the abdications of his grandfather and uncle. Still others recognised the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe. With the death of his grandfather in 1836, and his uncle in 1844, Henri became the genealogically senior claimant to the French throne. His supporters were called Legitimists to distinguish them from the Orléanists, the supporters of the family of Louis-Philippe.

Henri, who preferred the "courtesy" title of comte de Chambord (from the château de Chambord, which had been presented to him by the nation, and which was the only significant piece of personal property he was allowed to retain ownership of upon his exile), continued to make his claim throughout the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe, the Second Republic, and the Second Empire of Napoléon III. In November 1846 the comte de Chambord married his second cousin Archduchess Marie Thérèse of Austria-Este, daughter of Duke Francis IV of Modena and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy. Her maternal grandparents were Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria-Este; the couple had no children.

Hope

In the early 1870s, as the Second Empire collapsed following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War at the battle of Sedan, on 1 September 1870, the royalists became a majority in the National Assembly. The Orléanists agreed to support the comte de Chambord's claim to the throne, with the hope that at his death he would be succeeded by their own claimant, the nine-year-old Count of Paris, Philippe d'Orléans. Henri was then pretender for both legitimists and Orléanists and the restoration of Monarchy in France seemed to be a close possibility. However, Henri insisted that he would only accept the crown on condition that France abandon its tricolour flag and return to the use of the white fleur-de-lis flag. Even a compromise, whereby the fleur-de-lis would be the new king's personal standard, and the tricolour would remain the national flag, was rejected.

Defeat

A temporary Third Republic was established, to wait for Henri's death and his replacement by the more liberal comte de Paris. But by the time this occurred in 1883, public opinion had swung behind the Republic as the form of government which, in the words of the former President Adolphe Thiers, "divides us least". Thus, Henri could be mockingly hailed by republicans such as Georges Clemenceau as "the French Washington" — the one man without whom the Republic could not have been founded.

Henri died August 24, 1883 at his residence in Frohsdorf, Austria. He was buried in his grandfather Charles X's crypt at the monastery of Castagnavizza in Gorizia, Italy, now on the Slovenian side of the border in Nova Gorica.

At his death, Henri's wife and some of his supporters accepted the senior male of the House of Bourbon, Henri's distant cousin and brother-in-law, Juan, Count of Montizón as the rightful heir to the Kingdoms of France and Navarre. Other supporters of Henri transferred their allegiance to the Orléanist claimant, Philippe, comte de Paris.

His personal property, including the château de Chambord, was left to his late sister's son Robert I, Duke of Parma.

Ancestors

See also

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