See his drawings and sculpture, introd. by M. Levey (1965); biography by H. S. Ede (1930); study by E. Pound (1916, repr. 1970).
See studies by A. F. Havighurst, ed. (rev. ed. 1969) and B. P. Lyon (1972).
See studies by C. Murrow (1968) and J. Levitt (1969).
See H. W. Carr, The Philosophy of Change (1914, repr. 1970); H. M. Kallen, William James and Henri Bergson (1914); P. A. Y. Gunter, Bergson and the Evolution of Physics (1969); L. Kołakowski, Bergson (1985); G. Deleuze, Bergsonism (tr. 1988).
See R. Shattuck, The Banquet Years (1958, repr. 1968); studies by D. Vallier (1964), D. C. Rich (1946, repr. 1970), G. Adriani (2001), and F. Morris, C. Green, and N. Ireson, ed. (2006).
See his Musique, sémantique, société (1974).
See his autobiographical novel, Aliocha (1991); study by N. Hewitt (1984).
Matisse began to study law and, during an illness in 1890, took up painting, thereafter forsaking law entirely. He studied first with the academician Bouguereau and then with Gustave Moreau, in whose studio he met many painters who would soon attain prominence with him in the fauvist movement. Matisse's earliest work was exceptionally mature. He explored impressionism (e.g., La Desserte, 1897; Niarchos Coll., Athens) and, coming into contact with the theories of Paul Signac, drew upon neoimpressionist styles as in Luxe, calme et volupté (c.1905; private coll.). To learn aspects of composition he made variations on the works of the old masters in the Louvre, a practice he continued for many years (e.g., Variation on a Still Life by de Heem, c.1915; S. A. Marx Coll., Chicago).
Matisse began exhibiting in 1896 and at first was unsuccessful. In 1905 at Collioure, a Mediterranean village, he began using pure primary color as a significant structural element. His portrait of Mme Matisse, known as The Green Line (1905; State Mus., Copenhagen), exemplifies this abstract, intellectual use of color. In 1905 he exhibited at the Salon d'automne with the group of artists called fauves [Fr.,=wild beasts], so named for their remarkable, exuberant use of color. Matisse became a leader of fauvism, delighting in vivid color for its sensual and decorative value.
After the demise of fauvism Matisse continued to use color to communicate his joy in bold pattern and striking ornament, e.g., in The Moorish Screen (1921; Phila. Mus. of Art) and Lady in Blue (1937; private coll.). He experimented frequently with different sorts of expressive abstraction, as in The Blue Nude (1907; Baltimore Mus. of Art), Mlle Landsberg (1914; Phila. Mus. of Art), and The Piano Lesson (1916; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City), but he rejected cubism in order to develop his own ideas. In 1908 Matisse wrote out his theories for La Grande Revue; he wished, if possible, to paint a visual representation of his emotional reaction to a subject rather than its realistic appearance. By 1909 the artist's fame was worldwide.
Matisse's early sculpture reveals an interest in African art and in Rodin. Matisse designed for the ballet (1920, 1938) and illustrated works by Mallarmé (1932) and Baudelaire (1944), among many others. His superbly simple line drawings rank among the greatest works of graphic art of the 20th cent. In his last years he also made brilliant paper cutouts and stencils (e.g., Jazz, 1947; Philadelphia Mus. of Art), as gay and as strong in design as his earliest work. When he was nearly 80, Matisse volunteered to decorate the Dominican nuns' chapel at Vence, France. His fresh and joyous works for the chapel include black-and-white murals, semiabstract stained-glass windows, a stone altar, a bronze cross, carved doors, and an array of colorful vestments. His work on the chapel was completed in 1951, and Matisse declared it his masterpiece.
The largest collections of Matisse's works are in the Baltimore Museum of Art; Art Institute of Chicago; Museum of Modern Art, New York City; and the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
See catalog from his retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City (1992); biography by H. Spurling (2 vol., 1998-2005); J. Russell, Matisse: Father and Son (1999); studies by J. Guichard-Meili (tr. 1967) and L. Aragon (2 vol., tr. 1972).
See his correspondence with T. Clarkson, ed. by E. L. Griggs and C. H. Prator (1952, repr. 1968); biography by H. Cole (1967); C. Moran, Black Triumvirate: A Study of L'Ouverture, Dessalines, Christophe (1957).
See his The Mind's Eye: Writings on Photography and Photographers (1999); F. Nourissier, Cartier-Bresson's France (tr. 1971); P. Galassi, Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Early Work (1987); J.-P. Montier, Henri Cartier Bresson and the Artless Art (1996); P. Arbaizer et al., Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Man, the Image and the World: A Retrospective (2003).
See biography by A. H. Brodrick (1963).
See S. Northcote, The Songs of Henri Duparc (1949).
See his Art Spirit (1960); study by W. I. Homer (1969).
Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies, daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the king, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France.
He was born September 29, 1820, in the pavillon de Marsan, part of the Tuileries Palace which still survives in the Louvre in Paris. Henri's father, the duc de Berry, had been assassinated seven months before his birth. At the actual moment of Henri's birth, no member of the French court was present in the room; this enabled the supporters of the duc d'Orléans to later claim that Henri was not in fact a French prince.
At birth, Henri was given the title of duc de Bordeaux. Because of his posthumous birth when the senior line of the Bourbon dynasty appeared about to become extinct, he was popularly known as the Dieudonné or "God-given" baby. Royalists called him "the miracle child".
On 2 August, 1830, in response to the July Revolution, Henri's grandfather Charles X abdicated, and twenty minutes later Charles' elder son the Dauphin also abdicated in favor of the young duc de Bordeaux. Henri was immediately proclaimed Henri V, King of France and Navarre. However, after a fictive reign of only seven days, the National Assembly decreed that the throne should pass to the Regent, his distant cousin, the duc d'Orléans, who became Louis-Philippe, King of the French on August 9.
Henri, who preferred the "courtesy" title of comte de Chambord (from the château de Chambord, which had been presented to him by the nation, and which was the only significant piece of personal property he was allowed to retain ownership of upon his exile), continued to make his claim throughout the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe, the Second Republic, and the Second Empire of Napoléon III. In November 1846 the comte de Chambord married his second cousin Archduchess Marie Thérèse of Austria-Este, daughter of Duke Francis IV of Modena and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy. Her maternal grandparents were Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria-Este; the couple had no children.
In the early 1870s, as the Second Empire collapsed following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War at the battle of Sedan, on 1 September 1870, the royalists became a majority in the National Assembly. The Orléanists agreed to support the comte de Chambord's claim to the throne, with the hope that at his death he would be succeeded by their own claimant, the nine-year-old Count of Paris, Philippe d'Orléans. Henri was then pretender for both legitimists and Orléanists and the restoration of Monarchy in France seemed to be a close possibility. However, Henri insisted that he would only accept the crown on condition that France abandon its tricolour flag and return to the use of the white fleur-de-lis flag. Even a compromise, whereby the fleur-de-lis would be the new king's personal standard, and the tricolour would remain the national flag, was rejected.
Henri died August 24, 1883 at his residence in Frohsdorf, Austria. He was buried in his grandfather Charles X's crypt at the monastery of Castagnavizza in Gorizia, Italy, now on the Slovenian side of the border in Nova Gorica.
At his death, Henri's wife and some of his supporters accepted the senior male of the House of Bourbon, Henri's distant cousin and brother-in-law, Juan, Count of Montizón as the rightful heir to the Kingdoms of France and Navarre. Other supporters of Henri transferred their allegiance to the Orléanist claimant, Philippe, comte de Paris.