HUS occurs after 2-7% of all E. coli O157:H7 infections.
Adult HUS has similar symptoms and pathology but is an uncommon outcome of the following: HIV; antiphospholipid syndrome (associated with Lupus erythematosus and generalized hypercoagulability); post partum renal failure; malignant hypertension; scleroderma; and cancer chemotherapy (mitomycin, cyclosporine, cisplatin and bleomycin).
A third category is referred to as familial HUS. It represents 5-10% of HUS cases and is largely due to mutations in the complement proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein and factor I leading to uncontrolled complement system activation. Recurrent thromboses result in a high mortality rate.
Antibiotic treatment of O157:H7 colitis may stimulate further verotoxin production and thereby increase the risk of HUS.
In severe cases or when there is diagnostic uncertainty between HUS and TTP, plasmapheresis is the treatment of choice. Plasmapheresis may reverse the ongoing platelet consumption. In children with post diarrheal HUS, there is greater chances of spontaneous resolution and hence observation may be the key modality.
HUS and the E. coli infections which caused it have been the source of much negative publicity for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), meat industries, and fast-food restaurants since the 1990's, especially in the Jack in the Box contaminations. It was also featured in the Robin Cook novel Toxin. In 2006, an epidemic of harmful E. coli emerged in the United States due to contaminated spinach. 183 known cases have been reported, including 29 cases of HUS.
New hemolytic uremic syndrome research reported from Newcastle University, Institute of Human Genetics.(Report)
Feb 04, 2010; Fresh data on hemolytic uremic syndrome are presented in the report 'Association of factor H autoantibodies with deletions of...
New hemolytic-uremic syndrome study findings recently were published by researchers at Cardiff University, Department of Infection.
Oct 25, 2010; Researchers detail in 'Variant-specific quantification of factor H in plasma identifies null alleles associated with atypical...