Helen

Helen

[hel-uhn]
Clark, Helen, 1950-, New Zealand politician, prime minister (1999-2008), b. Hamilton, N.Z. A graduate of the Univ. of Auckland (B.A., 1971; M.A., 1974), she taught political science there (1973-81). In 1981 she was elected to parliament as a member of the Labor party. Clark held various cabinet posts (1987-90) and served deputy prime minister (1989-90). Named party leader in 1993, she led the party to victory in 1999 and became prime minister of a coalition government; Labor retained power in 2002 and 2005. In office, Clark increased government spending, boosted the economy, nationalized lands claimed by Maoris, championed a national antinuclear policy, and refused to join the U.S.-led war against Iraq. Following Labor's 2008 loss to the National party, she resigned as party leader. In 2009 Clark was appointed to a four-year term as administrator of the United Nations Development Program.
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-, American painter, b. New York City. A painter of the abstract expressionist school (see abstract expressionism), Frankenthaler was greatly influenced by Jackson Pollock, with whom she studied. In the early 1950s she developed a technique for staining unprimed canvases with color that was later to influence the color-field painters (see color-field painting). Her abstract works evoke a lyrical and sensuous mood, as in Blue Territory (1955) and Arden (1961; both: Whitney Mus., New York City).

See studies by E. A. Carmean (1989) and J. Elderfield (1989).

Hayes, Helen, 1900-1993, American actress, b. Washington, D.C., as Helen Hayes Brown. She made her New York stage debut at the age of nine. Performances in Caesar and Cleopatra (1925), and Mary of Scotland (1933) brought her fame; her portrayal (1935-39) of the title role in Laurence Housman's Victoria Regina established her as an actress of the first rank. Later stage triumphs include The Show-Off (1967) and Harvey (1970). She was active also in films, winning Academy Awards for The Sin of Madelon Claudet (1932) and Airport (1969).

See her memoirs Gift of Joy (1965; with L. Funke), On Reflection (1968; with S. Dody), Twice Over Lightly (1972; with A. Loos), and My Life in Three Acts (1990; with K. Hatch); biography by her mother, Catherine Hayes Brown (1940).

Helen, in Greek mythology, the most beautiful of women; daughter of Leda and Zeus, and sister of Castor and Pollux and Clytemnestra. While still a young girl Helen was abducted to Attica by Theseus and Polydeuces, but Castor and Pollux rescued her. Later, when she was courted by the greatest heroes and chieftains of Greece, her foster father, Tyndareus, fearful of their jealousies, demanded that each suitor swear to defend the rights of the man Helen chose. She then married Menelaus, who, when Paris carried her off to Troy, reminded her former suitors of their oath. They then recruited an army and defeated the Trojans in the Trojan War.

Some legends say that Paris forcibly abducted Helen; others that she fell in love with him and went willingly. In one peculiar account, originating in Stesichorus and used by Euripides, Helen was rescued by Proteus in Egypt, who substituted in her stead a phantom that sailed to Troy with Paris. Proteus then cared for Helen until Menelaus finally claimed her. In the Iliad and Odyssey, Helen becomes Paris' wife but is in sympathy with the Greeks. She is easily reconciled with Menelaus after the war, and they return to a peaceful life at Sparta.

There are several other accounts of the story of Helen. Some say that after she and Menelaus returned to Greece, Orestes vengefully tried to kill her but that Zeus deified her. She bore Menelaus one daughter, Hermione, and, by some accounts, a son, Pleisthenes. Helen had cults in Sparta and elsewhere and is considered by some scholars to be a "faded" goddess—perhaps an ancient fertility goddess—who became a mortal woman.

MacInnes, Helen: see under Highet, Gilbert.
Suzman, Helen, 1917-2009, South African politician and anti-apartheid activist, b. Helen Gavronsky, grad. Univ. of Witwatersrand (1940). The daughter of Lithuanian Jewish immigrants, she taught at her alma mater (1945-52) and was elected (1953) to parliament as a member of the opposition United party. Unhappy with the party's tolerance of racial segregation, she helped found (1959) the liberal Progressive party. Fearless and outspoken in debate and the only member of her party in parliament from 1961 to 1974, Suzman was long the lone voice in parliament openly opposed to apartheid. In 1967 she first visited the Robben Island prison, where many black activists were held. She met and befriended Nelson Mandela there, returned frequently, and worked to improve the prison's appalling conditions. Suzman retired from parliament in 1989 and served as president of the South African Institute of Race Relations (1991-93) and a member of the Human Rights Commission (1995-96).

See her memoir, In No Uncertain Terms (1993); study by M. Pimstone (1973, repr. 2005).

or Helen Wills Moody in full Helen Newington Wills Moody Roark

(born Oct. 6, 1905, Centerville, Calif., U.S.—died Jan. 1, 1998, Carmel, Calif.) U.S. tennis player. She won the first of seven U.S. singles h1s in 1923. She took the gold medal in both singles and doubles at the 1924 Olympic Games. So overpowering was her game that from 1927 to 1932 she won every set she played in U.S. singles play. She took the Wimbledon h1 eight times (1927–30, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1938), a record only broken in 1990 by Martina Navratilova.

Learn more about Wills, Helen (Newington) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Beatrix Potter, 1913

(born July 28, 1866, South Kensington, Middlesex, Eng.—died Dec. 22, 1943, Sawrey, Lancashire) English author and illustrator of children's books. In her childhood Potter spent holidays in Scotland and the English Lake District, which inspired her love of animals and stimulated her imaginative and technically superb watercolour drawings. The illustrated animal stories she sent to a sick child when she was 27 were published as The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902), which became one of the best-selling children's books of all time. More than 20 sequels followed, featuring such original characters as Jeremy Fisher, Squirrel Nutkin, Jemima Puddle-Duck, and Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle.

Learn more about Potter, (Helen) Beatrix with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Helen Keller at age 66.

(born June 27, 1880, Tuscumbia, Ala., U.S.—died June 1, 1968, Westport, Conn.) U.S. author and educator who was blind and deaf. Deprived by illness of sight and hearing at the age of 19 months, Keller soon became mute as well. Five years later she began to be instructed by Anne Sullivan (1866–1936), who taught her the names of objects by pressing the manual alphabet into her palm. Eventually Keller learned to read and write in Braille. She wrote several books, including The Story of My Life (1902). Her childhood was dramatized in William Gibson's play The Miracle Worker (1959; film, 1962).

Learn more about Keller, Helen (Adams) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Helen Wills Moody in full Helen Newington Wills Moody Roark

(born Oct. 6, 1905, Centerville, Calif., U.S.—died Jan. 1, 1998, Carmel, Calif.) U.S. tennis player. She won the first of seven U.S. singles h1s in 1923. She took the gold medal in both singles and doubles at the 1924 Olympic Games. So overpowering was her game that from 1927 to 1932 she won every set she played in U.S. singles play. She took the Wimbledon h1 eight times (1927–30, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1938), a record only broken in 1990 by Martina Navratilova.

Learn more about Wills, Helen (Newington) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 10, 1900, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died March 17, 1993, Nyack, N.Y.) U.S. actress. She began her stage career at age five and made her Broadway debut at nine. She went on to an illustrious career, starring in Broadway productions such as Caesar and Cleopatra (1925), What Every Woman Knows (1926), and The Animal Kingdom (1932) and became known as “the First Lady of the American Theatre.” Her small physical size belied a majestic stage presence that made her memorable in Mary of Scotland (1933–34) and Victoria Regina (1935–39). She starred in revivals of The Skin of Our Teeth (1955), The Glass Menagerie (1956), and Long Day's Journey into Night (1971), acted in numerous radio and television plays, and won Academy Awards for her films The Sin of Madelon Claudet (1931) and Airport (1970), three Tony Awards, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. She was married to Charles MacArthur.

Learn more about Hayes (Brown), Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 12, 1928, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. painter. She studied with Rufino Tamayo in high school and at Bennington College, then returned to her native New York City and joined the “second generation” of Abstract Expressionists. Influenced by Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky, she developed a style featuring abstract colour combinations within large expanses of bare canvas. She perfected the technique of colour staining, producing diaphanous colour by thinning the oils and letting them soak into the unprimed canvas. In the 1960s she began to use acrylic paints. Though abstract, many of her paintings (e.g., Ocean Desert, 1975) evoke landscapes and are noted for their lyricism. Her work influenced the colour-field painters Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. She was married to Robert Motherwell from 1958 to 1971.

Learn more about Frankenthaler, Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Helen Clark, 2005.

(born Feb. 26, 1950, Hamilton, N.Z.) New Zealand prime minister (1999–2008). She was the first woman in New Zealand to hold the office of prime minister immediately following an election. She received bachelor's (1971) and master's (1974) degrees in political science at the University of Auckland, where she taught from 1973 to 1981. Elected to Parliament in 1981, she held various cabinet portfolios beginning in 1987. She served as deputy prime minister in 1989–90 and was appointed to the Privy Council in 1990, both firsts for a woman in New Zealand. In 1993 she was elected head of the Labour Party, becoming the first woman in New Zealand to head a major party. In 1999, when the Labour Party was able to form a governing coalition, Clark was elected prime minister. She was reelected in both 2002 and 2005, becoming the first New Zealand prime minister to secure three consecutive terms in office. In the 2008 election, however, her party was defeated by the National Party; she subsequently stepped down as Labour leader.

Learn more about Clark, Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Helen Keller at age 66.

(born June 27, 1880, Tuscumbia, Ala., U.S.—died June 1, 1968, Westport, Conn.) U.S. author and educator who was blind and deaf. Deprived by illness of sight and hearing at the age of 19 months, Keller soon became mute as well. Five years later she began to be instructed by Anne Sullivan (1866–1936), who taught her the names of objects by pressing the manual alphabet into her palm. Eventually Keller learned to read and write in Braille. She wrote several books, including The Story of My Life (1902). Her childhood was dramatized in William Gibson's play The Miracle Worker (1959; film, 1962).

Learn more about Keller, Helen (Adams) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

In Greek mythology, the most beautiful woman in Greece, who was the indirect cause of the Trojan War. She was a daughter of Zeus, either by Leda or by Nemesis. Her brothers were the Dioscuri, and her sister was Clytemnestra, wife of Agamemnon. Helen was the wife of Menelaus. When Paris, son of Priam, was asked to decide which goddess was the most beautiful, he chose Aphrodite, who rewarded him with the most beautiful woman in the world. Seducing Helen with the goddess's help, Paris carried her off to Troy, and the Greeks sent a military force to pursue them. At the war's end, with Paris dead, Helen returned to Sparta with Menelaus.

Learn more about Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 12, 1928, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. painter. She studied with Rufino Tamayo in high school and at Bennington College, then returned to her native New York City and joined the “second generation” of Abstract Expressionists. Influenced by Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky, she developed a style featuring abstract colour combinations within large expanses of bare canvas. She perfected the technique of colour staining, producing diaphanous colour by thinning the oils and letting them soak into the unprimed canvas. In the 1960s she began to use acrylic paints. Though abstract, many of her paintings (e.g., Ocean Desert, 1975) evoke landscapes and are noted for their lyricism. Her work influenced the colour-field painters Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. She was married to Robert Motherwell from 1958 to 1971.

Learn more about Frankenthaler, Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Helen Clark, 2005.

(born Feb. 26, 1950, Hamilton, N.Z.) New Zealand prime minister (1999–2008). She was the first woman in New Zealand to hold the office of prime minister immediately following an election. She received bachelor's (1971) and master's (1974) degrees in political science at the University of Auckland, where she taught from 1973 to 1981. Elected to Parliament in 1981, she held various cabinet portfolios beginning in 1987. She served as deputy prime minister in 1989–90 and was appointed to the Privy Council in 1990, both firsts for a woman in New Zealand. In 1993 she was elected head of the Labour Party, becoming the first woman in New Zealand to head a major party. In 1999, when the Labour Party was able to form a governing coalition, Clark was elected prime minister. She was reelected in both 2002 and 2005, becoming the first New Zealand prime minister to secure three consecutive terms in office. In the 2008 election, however, her party was defeated by the National Party; she subsequently stepped down as Labour leader.

Learn more about Clark, Helen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. For other uses, see Helen (disambiguation) and Helen of Troy (disambiguation).

In Greek mythology, Helen (in Greek, ἙλένηHelénē), better known as Helen of Sparta later Helen of Troy, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. Helen was described by Christopher Marlowe as having "the face that launched a thousand ships."

Etymology

Helen or Helene is probably derived from the Greek word, meaning "torch", or "corposant", or might be related to "selene", meaning "moon".

If it has an Indo-European etymology, it is possibly a suffixed form of a root *wel- "to turn, roll or "to cover, enclose" (compare Varuna, Veles), or of *sel- "to flow, run". The latter possibility would allow comparison to Vedic Saraṇyū, who is abducted in RV 10.17.2, a parallel suggestive of a Proto-Indo-Asian abduction myth.

The name is in any case unrelated to Hellenes, as is sometimes claimed ("Hellenes" being from the root *sed- "to sit, settle").

Life of Helen

Birth

In most sources, including the Iliad and the Odyssey, Helen is the daughter of Zeus and Leda. Euripides' play Helen, written in the late 5th century BC, is the earliest source to report the most familiar account of Helen's birth: that Zeus, in the form of a swan, was chased by an eagle, and sought refuge with Leda. The swan gained her affection, and the two mated. Leda then produced an egg, from which Helen was born.

On the other hand, in the Cypria, one of the Cyclic Epics, Helen was the daughter of Zeus and the goddess Nemesis. The date of the Cypria is uncertain, but it is generally thought to preserve traditions that date back to at least the 7th century BC. In the Cypria, Nemesis did not wish to mate with Zeus. She therefore changed shape into various animals as she attempted to flee Zeus, finally becoming a goose. Zeus also transformed himself into a goose and mated with Nemesis, who produced an egg from which Helen was born. Presumably in the Cypria this egg was given to Leda; in the 5th century comedy Nemesis by Cratinus, Leda was told to sit on an egg so that it would hatch, and this is no doubt the egg that was produced by Nemesis. Asclepiades and Pseudo-Eratosthenes related a similar story, except that Zeus and Nemesis became swans instead of geese. Timothy Gantz has suggested that the tradition that Zeus came to Leda in the form of a swan derives from the version in which Zeus and Nemesis transformed into birds.

Abduction by Theseus

Two Athenians, Theseus and Pirithous, pledged to wed daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen, and Pirithous vowed to marry Persephone, the wife of Hades. Theseus and Pirithous kidnapped Helen and left her with Theseus' mother, Aethra, while they traveled to the underworld, the domain of Hades, to kidnap Persephone. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast. As soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Helen was subsequently rescued by her brothers, Castor and Pollux, who returned her to Sparta.

In most accounts of this event, Helen was quite young; Hellanicus of Lesbos said she was seven years old and Diodorus makes her ten years old. On the other hand, Stesichorus said that Iphigeneia was the daughter of Theseus and Helen, which obviously implies that Helen was of childbearing age. In most sources, Iphigeneia is the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, but Duris of Samos and other writers followed Stesichorus' account.

Marriage to Menelaus

When it was time for Helen to marry, many kings and princes from around the world came to seek her hand or sent emissaries to do so on their behalf.

Several lists of her suitors were compiled, since the suitors of Helen were later the heroes of the Trojan War. This one is from Apollodorus:

This list is not complete; Apollodorus earlier mentions Cinyras king of Cyprus and Enarophorus and later mentions Idomeneus, king of Crete Another list was compiled by Hesiod and, later by Hyginus.

All suitors brought many rich gifts with them, with the exception of Odysseus.

Helen's father, Tyndareus, would not choose a suitor, or send any of the suitors away, for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus promised to solve the problem if Tyndareus would support him in his courting of Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with him. This stratagem succeeded and Helen and Menelaus were married. Following Tyndareus' death, Menelaus became king of Sparta because the only male heirs, Castor and Pollux, had died and ascended to Olympus.

Seduction by Paris

Some years later, Paris, a Trojan prince, came to Sparta to marry Helen, whom he had been promised by Aphrodite after he had chosen her as the most beautiful of the goddesses, earning the wrath of Athena and Hera. Some sources say that Helen willingly left behind her husband Menelaus and Hermione, their nine-year-old daughter, to be with Paris, but, since Aphrodite promised Helen to Paris, there is some ambiguity about whether or not Helen went willingly. Some scholars have argued that Helen's abduction by Paris was in fact a rape (termed abduction as per the ancient understanding of raptus). Sources from Herodotus to material culture support this view. Ancient vases depict both the shameless Helen who went willingly to Troy and abduction stories in which Helen is taken by force.

Helen's relationship with Paris varies depending on the source of the story. In some, she loved him dearly (perhaps caused by Aphrodite, who had promised her to Paris). In others, she was portrayed as his unwilling captive in Troy, or as a cruel, selfish woman who brought disaster to everyone around her, and she hated him. In the version used by Euripides in his play Helen, Hermes fashioned a likeness of her out of clouds at Zeus's request, and Helen never even went to Troy, spending the entire war in Egypt. In all, she is described as being of magnificent beauty.

Fall of Troy

When he discovered that his wife was missing, Menelaus called upon all the other suitors to fulfill their oaths, thus beginning the Trojan War. Almost all of Greece took part, either attacking Troy with Menelaus or defending it from them.

Menelaus had demanded that only he should slay his unfaithful wife; but, when he raised his sword to do so, she dropped her robe from her shoulders, and the sight of her beauty caused him to let the sword drop from his hand.

Herodotus

Herodotus offers a differing account in which Helen never arrived in Troy. In that account Paris was forced to stop in Egypt on his way home. While there, his servants told the Egyptians that Paris had kidnapped the wife of Menelaus, who had offered Paris hospitality. The Egyptians scolded Paris and informed him that they were confiscating all the treasure he had stolen (including Helen) until Menelaus came to claim them and that Paris had three days to leave their shores.

Fate

Helen returned to Sparta and lived for a time with Menelaus, where she was encountered by Telemachus in The Odyssey. According to another version, used by Euripides in his play Orestes, Helen had long ago left the mortal world by then, having been taken up to Olympus almost immediately after Menelaus' return.

According to Pausanias the geographer (3.19.10.):

"The account of the Rhodians is different. They say that when Menelaus was dead, and Orestes still a wanderer, Helen was driven out by Nicostratus and Megapenthes and came to Rhodes, where she had a friend in Polyxo, the wife of Tlepolemus. For Polyxo, they say, was an Argive by descent, and when she was already married to Tlepolemus, shared his flight to Rhodes. At the time she was queen of the island, having been left with an orphan boy. They say that this Polyxo desired to avenge the death of Tlepolemus on Helen, now that she had her in her power. So she sent against her when she was bathing handmaidens dressed up as Furies, who seized Helen and hanged her on a tree, and for this reason the Rhodians have a sanctuary of Helen of the Tree."

Tlepolemus was a son of Heracles and Astyoche. Astyoche was a daughter of Phylas, King of Ephyra who was killed by Heracles. Tlepolemus was killed by Sarpedon on the first day of fighting in the Iliad. Nicostratus was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Pieris, an Aetolian slave. Megapenthes was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Tereis, no further origin.

In Simonianism, it was taught that Helen of Troy was one of the incarnations of the Ennoia in human form.

Media

  • The Private Life of Helen of Troy, an early silent film.
  • In 1928, Richard Strauss wrote the German Opera Die ägyptische Helena, The Egyptian Helena, which is the story of Helen and Menelaus's troubles when they are marooned on a mythical island.
  • In 1956, an Italian-made epic titled Helen of Troy was released, directed by Oscar-winning director Robert Wise and starring Italian actress Rossana Podestà in the title role.
  • A television version of Helen's life up to the fall of Troy, Helen of Troy.
  • Appeared in the episode 12 of Season 1 called "Beware Greeks Bearing Gifts" in Xena: Warrior Princess. Played by Galyn Görg, Helen was supposedly a close friend of Xena's and sent out a messenger to fetch her during the Trojan War.
  • Helen of Troy is referenced in the climactic scene of The Truth About Cats & Dogs
  • In 2004, Helen was in the film Troy, played by Diane Kruger. In this adaptation she does not return to Sparta with Menelaus, but leaves Troy with Aeneas when the city falls.
  • Margaret George wrote an epic adult novel, Helen of Troy, in 2006, told through Helen's first-person narrative.
  • Esther Friesner wrote a young-adult novel, Nobody's Princess, published in 2007, of Helen's childhood and early life.
  • Caroline B. Cooney also wrote a young-adult novel, Goddess of Yesterday, where Helen is one of the main characters.

Modern culture

  • Inspired by the line "Was this the face that launched a thousand ships...?" from Marlowe's play The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, Isaac Asimov jocularly coined the unit _The_Helen to mean the amount of beauty that can launch one ship.
  • The band Genesis wrote and performed two songs that referred to Helen. The song "Ripples" from their 1976 album titled Trick of the Tail includes the line..."The face that launched a thousand ships." The song "Blood on the Rooftops" from their 1976 album titled [Wind & Wuthering], includes the line "Seems Helen of Troy has found a new face again."
  • The song "The Third Temptation of Paris" by Alesana tells the story of Helen and Paris from the viewpoint of Paris.
  • Henry Rider Haggard wrote a novel,"The World's Desire" in which Odysseus finds Helen in Egypt as a priestess and they wed.
  • The modernist poet H.D. wrote an epic poem Helen in Egypt from Helen's perspective.
  • The Australian singer/song writer "Jon English" wrote a 1990 rock opera Paris which tells the story of love and the Trojan War. A handful of small plays have appeared based on this musical work. A larger "Paris" musical will start in July 2008.

See also

References

Notes

Sources

  • Cicero, De inventione II.1.1-2
  • Servius, In Aeneida I.526, XI.262
  • Lactantius Placidus Commentarii in Statii Thebaida I.21

External links

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