See biographies by L. Nohl (1902, 7th ed. 1971), R. Hughes (rev. ed. 1978), and K. and I. Geiringer (3d ed. 1982); C. Rosen, The Classical Style (1972); H. C. R. Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works (5 vol., 1976-77).
Joseph Haydn, detail of an oil painting by Thomas Hardy, 1791.
Learn more about Haydn, (Franz) Joseph with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Haydn composed this symphony during his tenure as assistant Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Nikolaus Eszterházy. Written in 1764, the symphony uses a sonata da chiesa movement layout, although the language of the piece foreshadows the development of classical symphonism. As with other early Haydn symphonies that use this tempo scheme, all of the movements are in the same key. Three of them are in sonata form (the first, second, and fourth) and the remaining third is the customary minuet and trio in ternary form.
The first movement is the highlight of the symphony and features horns answered by cors anglais over a walking bass line. H. C. Robbins Landon calls it "surely one of the settecento's supremely original concepts".
HAYDN: Sonatas: No. 30 in D, Hob. XVI:19; No. 38 in F, Hob. XVI:23; No. 40 in E[musical Flat], Hob. XVI:25. Variations in F Minor, Hob.XVII:6 (Published and Partial Unpublished versions)/ HAYDN: Sonatas: No. 9 in D, Hob. XVI:4; No. 8 in A, Hob. XVI:5; No. 11 in Gig, Hob. XVI:11; No. 15 in E, Hob. XVI:13; No. 42 in G, Hob. XVI:27. Capriccio in G, Hob.XV11:1. Theme with Four Variations in G, Hob.III:77/ 11. Symphony No. 53: Andante in A
Mar 01, 2013; Haydn Sonatas: No. 30 in D, Hob. XVI: 19; No. 38 in F, Hob. XVI:23; No. 40 in E[musical flat], Hob. XVI:25. Variations in...