Haydn

Haydn

[hahyd-n]
Haydn, Franz Joseph, 1732-1809, Austrian composer, one of the greatest masters of classical music. As a boy he sang in the choir at St. Stephen's, Vienna, where he received his principal musical training. He struggled in poverty for years, earning a meager living as a teacher and accompanist. Eventually, his compositions came to the attention of some of Vienna's music-loving aristocrats, and under their patronage his career progressed rapidly. Most of his prodigious musical output was produced during the 29 years of his service as musical director to the princes Esterházy, beginning in 1761. During the 1780s, when he received commissions from London and Paris and honors from all over Europe, he formed a close friendship with Mozart, an association that influenced the music of each. In 1791 and 1794 he made lucrative visits to London, where he held concerts featuring his own music. During this period he wrote the 12 so-called Salomon Symphonies (after the impresario who had arranged his tours), much chamber music, and a large number of songs with English texts. Haydn's works are notable for their originality, liveliness, optimism, and instrumental brilliance. He established the basic forms of symphonic music and string quartet, which were to be a model and inspiration for the works of Mozart, and of Beethoven, who studied under Haydn. Important in the development of the classic sonata form, his string quartets and symphonies expanded the three-movement sonata form of C. P. E. Bach, adding one or two minuets before the last movement. Two great oratorios, The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), were written in his old age. His works include over 100 symphonies, many known by such names as the Farewell Symphony (1772), the Surprise Symphony (1791), the Military Symphony (1794), and the Clock Symphony (1794); over 80 string quartets; much other chamber music; more than 50 piano sonatas; and numerous operas, masses, and songs.

See biographies by L. Nohl (1902, 7th ed. 1971), R. Hughes (rev. ed. 1978), and K. and I. Geiringer (3d ed. 1982); C. Rosen, The Classical Style (1972); H. C. R. Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works (5 vol., 1976-77).

Haydn, Michael, 1737-1806, Austrian composer, younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn. Haydn, largely self-taught, was noted especially for his sacred music. He was a friend of Mozart, whose Symphony No. 37 is actually Haydn's work with an introduction by Mozart. Toward the end of his life Haydn taught the Czech composer Antonín Reicha and Carl Maria von Weber.

Joseph Haydn, detail of an oil painting by Thomas Hardy, 1791.

(born March 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria—died May 31, 1809, Vienna) Austrian composer. Intended for the priesthood, he was recruited at age eight to the choir at St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, where he learned violin and keyboard. On leaving the choir, he began supporting himself by teaching and playing violin, while undertaking a rigorous study of counterpoint and harmony. He came to the attention of Pietro Metastasio and through him became factotum to the composer Nicola Porpora in exchange for lessons. Gaining entrée to high society, in 1761 he became head of the musical establishment at the great palace of the Esterházy family, which would support him for most of his career. In this position of artistic isolation but with excellent resources, Haydn felt free to experiment and was forced to become original. By his late years he was recognized internationally as the greatest living composer. He composed important works in almost every genre, and his elegant and ingratiating works balance wit and seriousness, custom and innovation. The first great symphonist, he composed 106 symphonies, including the popular last 12 “London symphonies” (1791–95). He virtually invented the string quartet, and his 68 quartets remain the foundation of the quartet literature. His choral works include 14 masses and the oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801). He also wrote 47 piano sonatas and more than 125 beautiful works for the cello-like baryton. The principal shaper of the Classical style, he exerted major influence on his friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and on his student Ludwig van Beethoven.

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Symphony No. 22 in E-flat major (Hoboken 1/22) is a symphony written by Joseph Haydn in 1764. Nicknamed "The Philosopher" ("Der Philosoph"), it is the most widely programmed of Haydn's early symphonies.

Haydn composed this symphony during his tenure as assistant Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Nikolaus Eszterházy. Written in 1764, the symphony uses a sonata da chiesa movement layout, although the language of the piece foreshadows the development of classical symphonism. As with other early Haydn symphonies that use this tempo scheme, all of the movements are in the same key. Three of them are in sonata form (the first, second, and fourth) and the remaining third is the customary minuet and trio in ternary form.

Origins of the nickname "The Philosopher"

As with all the named Haydn symphonies, the title "Philosopher" was not Haydn's own; it was, however, commonly used in his own lifetime. The title is thought to derive from the melody and counterpoint of the first movement (between the strings and cor anglais), which musically allude to a question followed by an answer and paralleling the disputatio system of debate. The piece's use of a muted tick-tock effect also evokes the image of a philosopher deep in thought while time passes by.

Scoring

Like other symphonies composed around this time, the work was written for the small number of players (less than twenty) on retainer at the Esterházy court. The scoring is unusual in its use of two cor anglais (English horns) in place of the more common oboe. The rest of it stays true to convention with two bassoons, horns, timpani, continuo (harpsichord) and strings. The horns play a prominent role in all but the second movement, and Haydn's choice of E flat major may have been dictated by the fact that the valveless horns of the time sounded best when played as E flat instruments (that is, with E flat crooks inserted).

Form

The symphony is in four movements:

The first movement is the highlight of the symphony and features horns answered by cors anglais over a walking bass line. H. C. Robbins Landon calls it "surely one of the settecento's supremely original concepts".

The finale is one of the earliest examples of a "hunting finale" that would later be used in symphonies such as No. 65 and No. 73 "La Chasse".

Second version

Another version of the piece, well known in Haydn's time, has three movements with the second movement of the original version coming first, followed by a different movement that is marked andante grazioso in 3/8 and concluding with the same finale as in the original version. The second movement is thought to be spurious, which has led to the belief that this arrangement is not Haydn's own. H. C. Robbins Landon suggests that this arrangement was likely made to the original composition due to the "strangely original" adagio and the existence of cors anglais, which were not available in many areas. It is precisely these elements that make this symphony so popular, so this version is seldom performed in modern times.

Notes

See also

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