Hashang Bhibi


This article is about the Tibetan translator. For the primordial Buddha Vairocana, please see Vairocana

Vairotsana of 'Pagor' (Wylie: spa gor) (Tib.: Be-ro-tsa-na) is a great and unequalled translator living during the reign of King Trisong Detsen (who ruled from 755 until 797). Vairotsana, one of the 25 main disciples of Padmasambhava, was recognized by the latter as a reincarnation of an Indian pandita. He was among the first seven monks ordained by Shantarakshita, and was sent to India to study with Shri Singha who taught him in complete secrecy. Shri Singha in turn entrusted Vairotsana with the task of propagating the Mind section and the Space section of Dzogchen in Tibet. He is one of the three main masters to bring the Dzogchen teachings to Tibet, the two others being Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra. He was also a significant lineage holder of Trul Khor.

Vairotsana's chief disciples were Yudra Nyingpo (Wylie: gyu sgra snying po), Sangtön Yeshe Lama, Pang Gen Sangye Gönpo, Jnana Kumara of Nyag (Wylie: nyag ye she gzhon nu), and Lady Yeshe Drönma (Wylie: jo mo ye shes sgron). An especially renowned disciple was the old Pang Gen Mipham Gönpo whose disciples attained the rainbow body for seven generations by means of the oral instructions of Dzogchen Longde entitled 'Dorje Zampa' (Wylie: rdo rje zam pa) also known as the 'Vajra Bridge'. Tsele Natsok Rangdröl, Terdag Lingpa Gyurmey Dorje, and Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö Thaye are regarded as reincarnations of Vairotsana.

Shechen Gyaltsab mentions in his Pond of White Lotus Flowers that Vairotsana, before meeting Shri Singha, had met the wisdom forms of the two vidyadharas Garab Dorje and Manjushrimitra in a miraculous pagoda at Dhahena. After he had presented a huge offering of gold, they conferred empowerment upon him and bestowed their blessings, with the prediction that he would receive the complete teachings from Shri Singha.

He is sometimes called Vairocana, the central dhyani Buddha, as a gesture of respect. Vairocana means completely illuminating in Sanskrit, while Vairotsana is a tibetan word for the kacimbhala tree, a kind of oak. The name /vai-roṣaṇa/ would derive from Sanskrit /vi-roṣa/ 'free from anger'. The word /kacimbhala/ [not in Monier-Williams] may perhaps represent /kācima/ 'sacred tree' + /bhallātaka/ 'acajou, cashew-nut, marking-nut'.



Born in Pagor, Vairotsana was sent to India by Trisong Detsen to learn the Dharma with Indian pandits. Vairotsana also travelled widely in China, Khotan, Nepal, Shangshung, amongst other places.


Vairotsana went to China and received teachings from nineteen teachers, amongst these were: Kusula Bhitigarbha, Dharmabodhi, Vajra Sukha Deva, Pandita Barma, Tsenda Ritropa, Mahabodhi, Shri Ani, Hashang Bhibi, Surya Ghirti and Satipa.


  • Eye of the Storm: Vairotsana's Five Original Translation-- translation and commentary by Keith Dowman; Vajra Publications, Nepal




  • Schaeffer, Kurtis R. (2000). "The Religious Career of Vairocanavajra - a Twelth-Century Indian Buddhist Master from Dakṣiṇa Kośala" in Journal of Indian Philosophy; vol. 28: pp.361-384. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Source: (accessed: September 14, 2008)


  • Palmo, Ani Jima (Eugenie de Jong; translator); Nyingpo, Yudra (compilor, et. al.) (2004). The Great Image: the Life Story of Vairochana the translator. Shambala Publications, Inc.: Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. ISBN 1-59030-069-6 (pbk.: alk. paper)
  • The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism; HH Dudjom Rinpoche, ed. and trans. by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein; Wisdom Publications, 1991

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