In human genetics
, Haplogroup N
is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup
An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N is a branch of the mtDNA haplogroup L3, and is believed to have originated in West Asia some 50,000 to 80,000 years before present, with 65,000 years being thought of as the most likely date.
Haplogroup N is derived from the ancestral L3 haplotype that represents the 'Out of Africa' migration. Haplogroup N is the ancestral haplogroup to almost all European and Oceanian haplogroups in addition to many Asian and Amerindian ones. It is believed to have arisen in West Asia at a similar time to haplogroup M. It is also present in the Horn of Africa at a low frequency, carried by a back migration into Africa dating ~30,000 years ago, along with Asian haplotype M1 and other Eurasian associated haplogroups.
Its derived haplogroups include the macro-haplogroup R (and its descendants) and haplogroups N1, A, I, S, W, X, and Y.
Descendants of haplogroup N*
- Haplogroup N1
- Haplogroup A - found in Central and East Asia, as well as among Native Americans.
- Haplogroup R - a very extended and diversified macro-haplogroup.
- Haplogroup S - found among Australian Aborigines
- Haplogroup W - found especially in Western Eurasia
- Haplogroup X
- Haplogroup X1 - found primarily in North Africa
- Haplogroup X2 - found in Western Eurasia, Siberia and among Native Americans
- Haplogroup N9
- Haplogroup Y - found especially among Nivkhs and Ainus, with a moderate frequency among Koreans, Mongols, Tungusic peoples, Koryaks, Itelmens, Chinese, Japanese, Tajiks, Island Southeast Asians (including Taiwanese aborigines), and some Turkic peoples