Haplogroup M1 (mtDNA)

Haplogroup M (mtDNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup M is a branch of the haplogroup L3.

M is believed to have originated in Asia some 60,000 to 75,000 years before present:

The deep roots of M phylogeny clearly establish the antiquity of Indian lineages, especially M2, as compared to Ethiopian M1 lineage and hence, support an Asian origin of M macrohaplogroup.

Among the descendants of M are C, D, E, G, Q, and Z, with Z and G being observed in North Eurasian populations, C and D being shared between North Eurasian and Native American populations, E being observed in Southeast Asian populations, and Q being observed in Melanesian populations. The lineages M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M18 and M25 are exclusive to India, with M2 reported to be the oldest lineage on the Indian sub-continent. M7 and M8 are widespread Eastern Eurasian lineages.

Due to its great age, haplogroup M is an mtDNA lineage which does not correspond well to present-day ethnic groups, as it spans Siberian, Native American, East Asian, Southeast Asian, Central Asian, South Asian, Melanesian as well as Ethiopian, Somali, European, and various Middle Eastern populations in lesser frequency.

Descendants of haplogroup M

  • Haplogroup M1 - found in Western Eurasia and Northeast Africa
    • Haplogroup M1a
  • Haplogroup M2 - found in South Asia
  • Haplogroup M3 - found in South Asia
  • Haplogroup M4 - Found in South Asia
  • Haplogroup M5 - found in South Asia
    • Haplogroup M5a - found in Orissa, India
  • Haplogroup M6 - found in South Asia
    • Haplogroup M6b - found in Kerala, India
  • Haplogroup M7 - found in East Asia, especially in Japan
  • Haplogroup M8 - found in East Asia, especially in Japan
  • Haplogroup M9 - found in East and Southeast Asia
  • Haplogroup M10 - small clade found in East Asia
  • Haplogroup M11 - small clade found especially among the Chinese
  • Haplogroup M12 - small clade found in Japan
  • Haplogroup M21 - small clade found in SE Asia
  • Haplogroup M27 - found in Melanesia
  • Haplogroup M28 - found in Melanesia
  • Haplogroup M29 - found in Melanesia
  • Haplogroup M31 - found in Andaman Islands
    • Haplogroup M31a1 - found among the Onge, in the Andaman Islands
  • Haplogroup M32 - found in Andaman Islands
  • Haplogroup M33 - found in SE and South Asia
    • Haplogroup M33a - found in Gujarat, India
  • Haplogroup M34 - found in SE and South Asia
  • Haplogroup M35 - found in SE Asia
  • Haplogroup M37
    • Haplogroup M37a - found in Gujarat, India
  • Haplogroup M39 - found in SE Asia
  • Haplogroup M40 - found in SE Asia
  • Haplogroup M41 - found in South Asia
    • Haplogroup M41b - found in Andhra Pradesh, India
    • Haplogroup M41c - found in Andrah Pradesh, India
  • Haplogroup M42
  • Haplogroup M48
  • Haplogroup CZ
  • Haplogroup D - found in Eastern Eurasia, Native Americans, Central Asia and occasionally also in West Asia and Northern Europe.
  • Haplogroup G - found especially in Japan with some isolated instances in diverse places of Asia
  • Haplogroup Q - found in Melanesia and Australia (Aborigines)

References

See also

External links

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