Hagen, Johannes Georg

Hagen, Johannes Georg

Hagen, Johannes Georg, 1847-1930, American astronomer and mathematician, b. Austria. A Jesuit, he came in 1880 to the United States to teach. In 1888 he was made director of the astronomical observatory at Georgetown Univ., Washington, D.C., where he remained until 1905. In 1906 he was called to Rome to be at the head of the Vatican Observatory. Much of his research and writing was devoted to the variable stars and to nebulae and cosmic clouds.
Johannes Georg Bednorz (May 16, 1950) is a German physicist who shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics for work in high-temperature superconductivity. He was born in Neuenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany to Anton and Elisabeth Bednorz.

In 1968, Bednorz started his studies in Mineralogy at the University of Münster.

In 1982, Bednorz was hired by IBM to work in their Zurich laboratories. There, he joined Karl Alexander Müller's ongoing research into superconductivity.

In 1983, Bednorz and Müller began a systematic study of the electrical properties of ceramics formed from transition metal oxides, and in 1986, they succeeded in inducing superconductivity in a barium lanthanum copper oxide (BaLaCuO, also known as LBCO); the oxide's critical temperature was 35 kelvins, a full 12 K higher than the previous record.

In 1987, Bednorz and Müller were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

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