HMS Leander was a fourth-rate 50-gun ship of the Royal Navy, launched at Chatham on 1 July 1780. She took part in the Battle of the Nile, where commanded by Captain Thomas Thompson she was able to exploit a gap in the French line and anchor between Peuple Souverain and Franklin and rake both enemy ships while protected from their broadsides.
Carrying Nelson's dispatches from the Nile and captained by Edward Berry, she was captured on 18 August 1798 by the French ship Le Généreux and entered into the French service. She was recaptured by the Russian Navy when they captured Corfu from the French in 1799, and restored to the Royal Navy.
She was converted to hospital ship Hygeia in 1813 and sold in 1817.