Definitions

Hans

Hans

[hanz; Ger. hahns]
Egede, Hans, 1686-1758, Norwegian Lutheran missionary, called the Apostle of Greenland. He went to Greenland in 1721 and, with the support of the Danish government, founded a mission for the Eskimo. He also helped to initiate trade between Denmark and Greenland. He returned to Copenhagen in 1736 to become principal of a seminary that trained missionaries for Greenland. His son, Paul Egede, 1708-89, also a missionary to Greenland, completed a translation of the New Testament for use by the Eskimo.
Brosamer, Hans, c.1500-1554, German painter and engraver. His work shows the influence of Cranach, Dürer, and Holbein. Recent scholarship has attempted to reattribute a large body of works bearing the signature HB which are no longer thought to be by Brosamer. Among works accepted as his are many portraits.
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966, American painter, b. Germany. After earning a considerable reputation as a teacher in Munich, Hofmann moved permanently to the United States in 1930. He opened his own schools of art in New York City and in Provincetown, which were central to the development of abstract expressionism. Hofmann's work, influenced by Kandinsky, expresses his tremendous exuberance in his handling of violent, clashing colors. Representative examples of his art are Germania (Baltimore Mus. of Art) and Elegy (Walker Art Center, Minneapolis).

See his writings, ed. by S. Hunter (2d ed. 1964) and by W. C. Seitz (1963, repr. 1972).

Vaihinger, Hans, 1852-1933, German philosopher. Educated at Tübingen, Leipzig, and Berlin, he served at Strasbourg first as tutor and then as professor of philosophy. One of the great Kant scholars, in 1884 he went to Halle, where he became full professor in 1892. His studies of Kant culminated in Kant—ein Metaphysiker? (1899). His own system was set forth in 1911 and was translated into English as The Philosophy of "As If" (1924). He argued that since reality cannot be truly known, human beings construct systems of thought to satisfy their needs and then assume that actuality agrees with their constructions; i.e., people act "as if" the real were what they assume it to be.
Hartung, Hans, 1904-89, French painter, b. Germany. Hartung rejected the early influence of German expressionism and developed an entirely abstract style in which a strong linear element creates a rhythmic unity. In his works black lines are grouped together in bunches on a luminescent background. Characteristic is his Composition (1951; Cavellini Coll., Brescia).

See study by U. Apollonio (tr. 1973).

Franck, Hans: see Lützelburger, Hans.
Holbein, Hans the elder, c.1465-1524, German painter and draftsman.

Holbein worked principally in Augsburg and Ulm, painting altarpieces for churches and probably creating portraits as well. Such early works as the altarpiece depicting the Life of the Virgin (Augsburg Cathedral) and the large Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore altarpiece (Augsburg) show little divergence from the common practice of the Swabian school, which was influenced by the Flemish style.

In later altarpieces done after c.1500, such as those of the Basilica of St. Paul (Augsburg) and of St. Catherine (Augsburg) and especially in his masterly St. Sebastian altarpiece (Munich), Holbein's art shows the influence of Italy. In addition to his painting, Holbein designed stained glass windows for the cathedral at Eichstatt and for the Church of Saints Ulrich and Afra at Augsburg. He also produced a number of remarkable silverpoint portrait drawings that show something of the same talent for which his son Hans became renowned.

Ambrosius Holbein

Hans Holbein's older son, Ambrosius Holbein, c.1495-c.1519, is best known for his detailed book illustrations and portraits done in his father's manner. The Basel Museum has several works attributed to him.

Hans Holbein the Younger

The younger and better known son, Hans Holbein the younger, c.1497-1543, was an outstanding portrait and religious painter of the Northern Renaissance, was influenced by his father and by Hans Burgkmair. The first half of his life was spent in Basel except for short intervals in Lucerne, Lombardy, and France. He showed his diverse talents early in his career by designing woodcuts and glass paintings, illustrating books, and painting portraits and altarpieces. From youth he enjoyed the friendship of the great humanist Erasmus, and he made pen drawings illustrating Erasmus's Praise of Folly. Of this period are the portraits of Jacob Meyer and his wife and the beautiful preliminary drawing of Meyer in red chalk and silverpoint (all: Basel).

In 1519 Holbein was admitted to the painters' guild of Basel. Between 1519 and 1526 he decorated many buildings there, including the Town Hall, and painted the Passion Scenes and the celebrated Dead Christ (both in Basel), the altarpiece in Solothurn of the Madonna with St. Ursus and a Bishop Saint, and the famous Madonna of Burgomaster Meyer altarpiece (Darmstadt). Also of this period are several of his numerous portraits of Erasmus and a portrait of Boniface Amerbach (Basel). In these works the artist, now mature, shows his full genius without relinquishing the polished surface and enameled color of the earlier paintings. He reveals Italian influence in his larger conception and monumental composition and in the design and idealism of the characterization. A bold and subtle line, both precise and flowing, distinguishes these works.

From 1526 to 1528, Holbein was in England, where he painted a fine group of portraits, including those of Sir Thomas More (Frick Coll., New York City) and Sir Henry Guildford (Windsor Castle) and his wife (City Art Mus., St. Louis). After another residence (1528-32) in Basel, where he executed a second group of frescoes for the Town Hall (both series later destroyed), he settled in England and worked on portraits and wall paintings. Among the many famous portraits of these last years are those of Christine of Denmark and The French Ambassadors (both: National Gall., London). In 1536 he became court painter to Henry VIII and made numerous portraits and drawings of the king and his wives. His own wife and children, of whom there is a beautiful group portrait (Basel Mus.), remained in Basel. At 46 Holbein died of the plague in London.

In addition to his paintings, Hans Holbein the younger, left to the world magnificent preliminary portrait drawings in which he combined chalk, silverpoint, pen and ink, and other media. Today they are prized as highly as his paintings and may constitute a freer expression of his gift for exquisite characterization. In the beautiful simplicity of their design and in the subtle suggestion of both form and character, they are unsurpassed. Also famous are his woodcuts, which include the Dance of Death series and illustrations for Luther's Bible.

Many European museums possess examples of his paintings. At Windsor Castle are 80 Holbein portrait drawings. In the United States the Metropolitan Museum has several portraits; the Frick Collection, New York City, has two; and the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., has two.

Bibliography

See studies by P. Ganz (2d ed. 1956) and M. Kay (1966).

Carossa, Hans, 1878-1956, German poet and novelist. His autobiographical novel Childhood (1922, tr. 1930) and its sequels (1928, 1941) are noted for clear, graceful style. Führung und Geleit [guidance and companionship] (1933) contains warm vignettes of his literary mentors and friends, among them Mann, Rilke, and Hesse. Other works are A Roumanian Diary (1924, tr. 1929), the novel Doctor Gion (1931, tr. 1933), and volumes of poems (1938, 1949).
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976, American artist, b. Germany. A painter and filmmaker, Richter was influenced by cubism and Dada and was a member of the Dutch de Stijl group (see Stijl, de). His preoccupation with continuity led him first to scroll painting and then to the making of abstract films such as Rythm 21 (1921). His film Dreams That Money Can Buy (1944-46) was made in collaboration with Alexander Calder, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Fernand Léger, and Max Ernst. It concerns the fantasies of a group of psychiatric patients.
Sachs, Hans, 1494-1576, German poet, leading meistersinger of the Nuremberg school. A shoemaker and guild master, he wrote more than 4,000 master songs in addition to some 2,000 fables, tales in verse (Schwanke), morality plays, and farces. His Shrovetide plays, humorous and dramatically effective, present an informative picture of life in 16th-century Nuremberg. An ardent follower of Luther, Sachs wrote the poem "The Nightingale of Wittenberg" in Luther's honor. Many of his melodies were later adapted as Protestant hymn tunes. Hans Sachs is a principal character in several operas, notably in Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.
Makart, Hans, 1840-84, Austrian history painter, studied with Karl von Piloty. His early success was phenomenal. The emperor of Austria provided him with a studio, and his short life was crowded with official honors and triumphs. In his large history paintings he strove to emulate Titian and Veronese in the use of lush color. Characteristic of his glittering costume pieces is Entry of Charles V into Antwerp (1878, Hamburg).
Scharoun, Hans, 1893-1972, German architect. A member of the expressionist circle, Scharoun used a dynamic, sculptural approach to design throughout his long career. He conceived the Geschwister Scholl High School in Lunen, Westphalia (1962), as a complex of apartmentlike classrooms, built to create for its students a continuity between home and school environments. Scharoun was also noted for theater and concert-hall designs such as the acclaimed Berlin Philharmonic Building (1956-63).
Fallada, Hans, pseud. of Rudolf Ditzen, 1893-1947, German novelist. Little Man, What Now? (1932, tr. 1933), his story of a young couple in Germany after World War I, was an immediate international success. It was followed by The World Outside (1934, tr. 1934), Once We Had a Child (1934, tr. 1935), and Jeder stirbt für sich allein [each man dies his own death] (1947). Fallada's work belongs to new objectivity of the 20th-century that expressed its intellectual detachment from man's fate in words and a style intended to suppress emotional connotations.
Luther, Hans, 1879-1962, German statesman. As Gustav Stresemann's minister of finance he aided Hjalmar Schacht in stabilizing the German currency. A non-partisan in centrist coalitions, he succeeded Wilhelm Marx as chancellor, heading two successive center-right coalition cabinets (1925-26). With Stresemann as his foreign minister, he negotiated the Locarno Pact in 1925. Luther was president (1930-33) of the Reichsbank and German ambassador (1933-37) to the United States. His memoirs appeared in 1960.
Lützelburger, Hans, d. 1526, German wood engraver, assumed to be the same man as Hans Franck, active from c.1516. He worked in Augsburg and Basel and probably in Mainz. His remarkable technical abilities are evident in his wood engravings after Holbein the Younger's Dance of Death and in a curious print, Peasants Fighting with Naked Men.
Memling or Memlinc, Hans, c.1430-1494, Flemish religious and portrait painter, b. Germany. He may have studied with Roger van der Weyden in Brussels, but after 1466 he was in Bruges, working for Flemish patrons and for the many Italian businessmen there. His religious works reflect van der Weyden's figure types, but without their religious intensity. His portraits are more original, combining accuracy of representation with imaginative and varied treatment of the backgrounds. Details, such as flowers, animals, or architecture, are often sensitively observed. An example is his accurate view of Cologne Cathedral as it was in 1489 in the background of the St. Ursula Shrine panels (Bruges). His earliest known work is a triptych of The Madonna Enthroned with Saints and Donors (1468; Duke of Devonshire Coll., Chatsworth). Important works include The Adoration of the Magi Triptych and the Diptych of Martin van Nieuwenhoven (both Bruges); other pictures are in the Metropolitan Museum and the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; and the museums of San Diego, Houston, and Montreal.

See study by K. B. McFarlane (1972).

Delbrück, Hans, 1848-1929, German historian, professor at the Univ. of Berlin. His Geschichte der Kriegskunst [history of the art of warfare] (4 vol., 1900-1927) is notable for going beyond technical problems and linking warfare to politics and economics.
Fischer, Hans, 1881-1945, German organic chemist, Ph.D. Univ. of Marburg, 1904; M.D. Univ. of Munich, 1908. Fischer was a professor at the Univ. of Innsbruck from 1916 to 1918 and at the Univ. of Vienna from 1918 to 1921. He then joined the faculty at the Technical Univ. of Munich, where he remained until his death in 1945. Fischer received the 1930 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on biological pigments, in particular, hemin, the red pigment in blood, and chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants. His work enabled the artificial synthesis of hemin from simpler organic compounds with known structures.
Burckmair, Hans: see Burgkmair, Hans.
Burgkmair or Burckmair, Hans, 1473-1531, German engraver, woodcut designer, and painter. Having learned woodcutting from Schongauer, he settled in 1498 in his native Augsburg. His work shows the influence of his friend Dürer, whose enthusiasm for the Italian Renaissance he shared. Among his well-known paintings are the Rosary Altar (Augsburg) and Holy Family (1511; Berlin). After c.1508 he executed designs for woodcuts for Emperor Maximilian I; among these prints a series of episodes in the emperor's life is notable. Among his other works of graphic art are Death as Destroyer (1520) and Virtues and Vices.
Thoma, Hans, 1839-1924, German painter and lithographer. He was influenced by Courbet. His later, individual style, modeled on that of old German woodcuts, shows rich coloring and depth of imaginative feeling. In 1899 he became director of the Karlsruhe Gallery and professor of the academy. The Metropolitan Museum has his painting At Lake Garda.
Spemann, Hans, 1869-1941, German embryologist. He was professor of zoology (1919-35) at the Univ. of Freiburg. By transplanting embryonic tissue to a new location or to another embryo, he investigated the agency that governs the growth and differentiation of cells. He received the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and described his research in Embryonic Development and Induction (1938).
Süss, Hans: see Kulmbach, Hans von.
Zinsser, Hans, 1878-1940, American bacteriologist, b. New York City, grad. Columbia (B.A., 1899; M.D., 1903). He was professor of bacteriology at Stanford (1911-13), Columbia (1913-23), and Harvard medical school (from 1923). A noted epidemiologist, he was a leader in combating typhus and served with the American Red Cross sanitary commission during the 1915 typhus epidemic in Serbia and with the League of Nations sanitary commission (1923) in the USSR. Zinsser isolated the germ of the European type of typhus, and with his colleagues at Harvard, he developed (1940) a method for mass production of the vaccine. He wrote a popular work on typhus, Rats, Lice, and History (1935); several textbooks, including Infection and Resistance (1914; 4th ed. rev., Resistance to Infectious Disease, 1931; 5th ed. rev., Immunity, 1939); and the autobiographical As I Remember Him (1940).
Hemling, Hans: see Memling, Hans.
Pfitzner, Hans, 1869-1949, German conductor and composer, b. Moscow. Pfitzner studied music at Hoch's Conservatory in Frankfurt/ Main. His music, conservative in idiom (Pfitzner wrote articles attacking modernism in music), was popular in Germany in the early part of the 20th cent. After World War II his work was largely forgotten, and he spent his last years in homes for the aged. In 1948, Pfitzner was tried for having been actively pro-Nazi, but was acquitted of the charge. Among his compositions are the opera Palestrina (1917); the cantata Von deutscher Seele (1921) [from the German soul]; two symphonies; concertos for piano, violin, and cello; and songs.

See biography by J. M. Müller-Blattau (1969).

Multscher, Hans, c.1400-1467, outstanding German sculptor and painter of the Swabian school of Ulm. Early in life he traveled to the Netherlands and Burgundy. Probably influenced by the work of Claus Sluter, he developed a powerfully realistic figural style in both painting and sculpture. About 1427 Multscher settled in Ulm. For the east facade of the town hall he carved figures of Charles the Great and equestrian statues of the kings of Poland and Bohemia. In 1437 he painted the Wurzacher Altarpiece (partially lost; Berlin). He also worked on the famous altarpiece (1457) at Sterzing (now Vipiteno) in the Tyrol. For this work, a combination of painting and sculpture (now dispersed), he executed sculptures of the Virgin and saints, while the wings were painted by another artist.
Küng, Hans, 1928-, Swiss Roman Catholic theologian and author. Ordained in 1954, he became (1960) professor of theology at Tübingen Univ. and later served (1962-65) as adviser to the Second Vatican Council. Having consistently criticized papal authority, he became the first major Roman Catholic theologian to reject the doctrine of papal infallibility in his book Infallible? An Inquiry (1971). In 1979 he was stripped of his right to teach as a Roman Catholic theologian. His other works include The Council in Action (tr. 1963), Structures of the Church (tr. 1966), Why Priests? (tr. 1972), Eternal Life? (tr. 1984), and Global Responsibility (tr. 1991).
Modrow, Hans, 1928-, German politician. He served in the German Army, and was a prisoner of war until 1949. Joining the Socialist Unity party (Communists) in East Germany in 1949, he became first secretary of the East Berlin city committee (1953-61) and was a member of the city council until 1971. Rising slowly through the Communist party, he gained a reputation for honesty and open-mindedness as party secretary at Dresden; he refrained from suppressing the antigovernment agitation there in 1989. Taken into the East German Politburo and made prime minister at the height of the agitation against the Communist government, he formed a grand coalition that included 12 non-Communists in the cabinet of 27 (Nov., 1989-Mar., 1990). His government and party were soundly defeated in the momentum for German reunification. Modrow served in the enlarged Bundestag after unification and won reelection in Dec., 1990. In 1993 he was convicted of vote rigging in the municipal elections held in Dresden in May, 1989.
Baldung or Baldung-Grien, Hans, c.1484-1545, German painter and printmaker, active mainly at Strasbourg. He was surnamed Grien or Grün because of his fondness for the color green. Although he probably studied with Dürer, he evolved a personal style revealing his interest in brilliant color, effects of light, and expressively contorted forms. He is best known as a painter of such disturbing subjects as Death and the Maiden (Basel) and for drawings and prints of witches and allegorical or mythological scenes. The high altar of the cathedral at Freiburg in Breisgau, with depictions of the Coronation of the Virgin, the Crucifixion, and other subjects (c.1515) is his most famous work. Baldung was also esteemed as a portrait painter and designer for stained glass.
Baldung-Grien, Hans: see Baldung, Hans.

(born Aug. 14, 1777, Rudkøbing, Den.—died March 9, 1851, Copenhagen) Danish physicist and chemist. In 1820 he discovered that electric current in a wire can deflect a magnetized compass needle, a phenomenon that inspired the development of electromagnetic theory. His 1820 discovery of piperine, one of the pungent components of pepper, was an important contribution to chemistry, as was his preparation of metallic aluminum in 1825. In 1824 he founded a society devoted to the spread of scientific knowledge among the general public. In 1932 the oersted was adopted as the physical unit of magnetic field strength.

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(born Aug. 25, 1900, Hildesheim, Ger.—died Nov. 22, 1981, Oxford, Eng.) German-born British biochemist. He fled Nazi Germany for England in 1933, where he taught at the Universities of Sheffield and Oxford. He was the first to describe the urea cycle (1932). He and Fritz Lipmann (1899–1986) received a 1953 Nobel Prize for their discovery in living organisms of the series of chemical reactions known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (also called the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle), a discovery of vital importance to a basic understanding of cell metabolism and molecular biology.

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(born April 22, 1866, Schleswig, Prussia—died Dec. 27, 1936, Berlin, Ger.) German general. A career army officer, in World War I he was chief of staff of the 11th Army and then chief of staff of the Turkish army. After the war he became head of the German Reichswehr (1919–26) and secretly built a small but efficient army, circumventing the Treaty of Versailles prohibition. He supported cooperation with Russia and encouraged the Treaty of Rapallo. He later served as an adviser to the Chinese Nationalist Army (1934–35).

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or Hans Memlinc

“Diptych with Madonna and Martin van Nieuwenhove” (left wing), oil on panel by Hans elipsis

(born circa 1430/35, Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt am Main—died Aug. 11, 1494, Bruges) Flemish painter. He settled in Bruges in 1465 and established a large workshop that became very successful and made him one of the city's wealthiest citizens. Though somewhat derivative of the works of contemporary Flemish painters (Jan van Eyck, Dirck Bouts, Hugo van der Goes, and particularly Rogier van der Weyden), his art has great charm and a distinctive character. Memling's religious paintings and portraits of wealthy patrons (e.g., Tommaso Portinari and His Wife, circa 1468) were, and remain, enormously popular.

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(born Aug. 25, 1900, Hildesheim, Ger.—died Nov. 22, 1981, Oxford, Eng.) German-born British biochemist. He fled Nazi Germany for England in 1933, where he taught at the Universities of Sheffield and Oxford. He was the first to describe the urea cycle (1932). He and Fritz Lipmann (1899–1986) received a 1953 Nobel Prize for their discovery in living organisms of the series of chemical reactions known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (also called the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle), a discovery of vital importance to a basic understanding of cell metabolism and molecular biology.

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Hans Hofmann, photograph by Arnold Newman, 1960.

(born March 21, 1880, Weissenberg, Ger.—died Feb. 17, 1966, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. painter and art teacher. From 1898 he studied art in Munich, and in 1904 he moved to Paris, where he was inspired by the work of Henri Matisse and Robert Delaunay. In 1915 he opened his first school of painting in Munich. He moved to the U.S. in 1930 and taught at New York's Art Students League. In 1933 he opened the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Art, where he would exert strong influence on young abstract painters of the 1930s and '40s, including Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock. His style evolved into total abstraction, and he pioneered the paint-dripping technique later associated with Pollock. He closed the school in 1958 to devote the rest of his life to his painting. He was one of the most influential art teachers of the 20th century and a significant figure in the development of Abstract Expressionism.

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(born July 1, 1926, Gütersloh, Ger.) German-Italian composer. He studied with Wolfgang Fortner (1907–87) and later with René Leibowitz (1913–72). After an early association with the avant-garde at Darmstadt under Leibowitz's influence, the more traditional grounding received from Fortner reasserted itself. He moved permanently to Italy in 1953. He is best known for his operas, which include Der König Hirsch (1955), Elegy for Young Lovers (1961), Der junge Lord (1964), and The Bassarids (1965). He also wrote numerous major symphonies and concertos. His longtime commitment to Marxism expressed itself in many of his works. Though never known widely in the U.S., in Europe Henze is considered one of the major composers of the later 20th century.

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(born Feb. 11, 1900, Marburg, Ger.—died March 13, 2002, Heidelberg) German philosopher whose system of philosophical hermeneutics, derived in part from the ideas of Wilhelm Dilthey, Edmund Husserl, and Martin Heidegger, was influential in 20th-century Continental philosophy, aesthetics, theology, and literary criticism. The son of a chemistry professor, Gadamer studied the humanities at the universities of Breslau, Marburg, Freiburg, and Munich, earning a doctorate in philosophy under Heidegger at Freiburg in 1922. He later taught at the universities of Frankfurt am Main (1947–49) and Heidelberg (from 1949), where he became professor emeritus in 1968. In his most important work, Truth and Method (1960), Gadamer developed a general theory of understanding and interpretation modeled on the experience of art.

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(born April 22, 1866, Schleswig, Prussia—died Dec. 27, 1936, Berlin, Ger.) German general. A career army officer, in World War I he was chief of staff of the 11th Army and then chief of staff of the Turkish army. After the war he became head of the German Reichswehr (1919–26) and secretly built a small but efficient army, circumventing the Treaty of Versailles prohibition. He supported cooperation with Russia and encouraged the Treaty of Rapallo. He later served as an adviser to the Chinese Nationalist Army (1934–35).

Learn more about Seeckt, Hans von with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 1, 1926, Gütersloh, Ger.) German-Italian composer. He studied with Wolfgang Fortner (1907–87) and later with René Leibowitz (1913–72). After an early association with the avant-garde at Darmstadt under Leibowitz's influence, the more traditional grounding received from Fortner reasserted itself. He moved permanently to Italy in 1953. He is best known for his operas, which include Der König Hirsch (1955), Elegy for Young Lovers (1961), Der junge Lord (1964), and The Bassarids (1965). He also wrote numerous major symphonies and concertos. His longtime commitment to Marxism expressed itself in many of his works. Though never known widely in the U.S., in Europe Henze is considered one of the major composers of the later 20th century.

Learn more about Henze, Hans Werner with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Hans Memlinc

“Diptych with Madonna and Martin van Nieuwenhove” (left wing), oil on panel by Hans elipsis

(born circa 1430/35, Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt am Main—died Aug. 11, 1494, Bruges) Flemish painter. He settled in Bruges in 1465 and established a large workshop that became very successful and made him one of the city's wealthiest citizens. Though somewhat derivative of the works of contemporary Flemish painters (Jan van Eyck, Dirck Bouts, Hugo van der Goes, and particularly Rogier van der Weyden), his art has great charm and a distinctive character. Memling's religious paintings and portraits of wealthy patrons (e.g., Tommaso Portinari and His Wife, circa 1468) were, and remain, enormously popular.

Learn more about Memling, Hans with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hans Hofmann, photograph by Arnold Newman, 1960.

(born March 21, 1880, Weissenberg, Ger.—died Feb. 17, 1966, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. painter and art teacher. From 1898 he studied art in Munich, and in 1904 he moved to Paris, where he was inspired by the work of Henri Matisse and Robert Delaunay. In 1915 he opened his first school of painting in Munich. He moved to the U.S. in 1930 and taught at New York's Art Students League. In 1933 he opened the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Art, where he would exert strong influence on young abstract painters of the 1930s and '40s, including Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock. His style evolved into total abstraction, and he pioneered the paint-dripping technique later associated with Pollock. He closed the school in 1958 to devote the rest of his life to his painting. He was one of the most influential art teachers of the 20th century and a significant figure in the development of Abstract Expressionism.

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Hans Christian Andersen.

(born April 2, 1805, Odense, near Copenhagen, Den.—died Aug. 4, 1875, Copenhagen) Danish writer of fairy tales. Though reared in poverty, he received a university education. In his many collections of tales, published 1835–72, he broke with literary tradition and employed the idioms and constructions of spoken language. His stories are imaginative combinations of universal elements from folk legend and include such favourites as “The Ugly Duckling” and “The Emperor's New Clothes.” While some reveal an optimistic belief in the ultimate triumph of goodness and beauty (e.g., “The Snow Queen”), others are deeply pessimistic. Part of what makes his tales compelling is the way they identify with the unfortunate and outcast. He also wrote plays, novels, poems, travel books, and several autobiographies.

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or Hans Baldung Grien

(born circa 1484, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg—died 1545, Imperial Free City of Strasbourg) German painter and graphic artist. He was assistant to Albrecht Dürer in Nürnberg and was active in Strasbourg as official painter to the episcopate. He is best known for the high altar of the cathedral at Freiburg, where he lived in 1512–17. His output was varied and extensive, encompassing religious paintings, allegories, mythologies, portraits, designs for stained glass, tapestry, and book illustration. His paintings are equaled in importance by his drawings, engravings, and woodcuts, frequently depicting the themes of the “dance of death” and “death and the maiden.” In his taste for the gruesome, Baldung is close in style and spirit to Matthias Grünewald.

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or Hans Baldung Grien

(born circa 1484, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg—died 1545, Imperial Free City of Strasbourg) German painter and graphic artist. He was assistant to Albrecht Dürer in Nürnberg and was active in Strasbourg as official painter to the episcopate. He is best known for the high altar of the cathedral at Freiburg, where he lived in 1512–17. His output was varied and extensive, encompassing religious paintings, allegories, mythologies, portraits, designs for stained glass, tapestry, and book illustration. His paintings are equaled in importance by his drawings, engravings, and woodcuts, frequently depicting the themes of the “dance of death” and “death and the maiden.” In his taste for the gruesome, Baldung is close in style and spirit to Matthias Grünewald.

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(born July 2, 1906, Strassburg, Ger.—died March 6, 2005, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. theoretical physicist. His work helped shape quantum mechanics and increased understanding of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. Bethe fled Germany in 1933 and taught at Cornell University (1935–75). He showed how the electric field surrounding an atom in a crystal affects the atom's energy states. He was the first to propose the carbon cycle as a source of energy production in stars (1939). He headed the Theoretical Physics Division of the Manhattan Project, but in the postwar era he worked to publicize the threat of nuclear warfare. He was awarded the Max Planck Medal (1955) and the Enrico Fermi Award (1961) and received the 1967 Nobel Prize for Physics.

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(born Feb. 11, 1900, Marburg, Ger.—died March 13, 2002, Heidelberg) German philosopher whose system of philosophical hermeneutics, derived in part from the ideas of Wilhelm Dilthey, Edmund Husserl, and Martin Heidegger, was influential in 20th-century Continental philosophy, aesthetics, theology, and literary criticism. The son of a chemistry professor, Gadamer studied the humanities at the universities of Breslau, Marburg, Freiburg, and Munich, earning a doctorate in philosophy under Heidegger at Freiburg in 1922. He later taught at the universities of Frankfurt am Main (1947–49) and Heidelberg (from 1949), where he became professor emeritus in 1968. In his most important work, Truth and Method (1960), Gadamer developed a general theory of understanding and interpretation modeled on the experience of art.

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(born July 2, 1906, Strassburg, Ger.—died March 6, 2005, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. theoretical physicist. His work helped shape quantum mechanics and increased understanding of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. Bethe fled Germany in 1933 and taught at Cornell University (1935–75). He showed how the electric field surrounding an atom in a crystal affects the atom's energy states. He was the first to propose the carbon cycle as a source of energy production in stars (1939). He headed the Theoretical Physics Division of the Manhattan Project, but in the postwar era he worked to publicize the threat of nuclear warfare. He was awarded the Max Planck Medal (1955) and the Enrico Fermi Award (1961) and received the 1967 Nobel Prize for Physics.

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Hans Christian Andersen.

(born April 2, 1805, Odense, near Copenhagen, Den.—died Aug. 4, 1875, Copenhagen) Danish writer of fairy tales. Though reared in poverty, he received a university education. In his many collections of tales, published 1835–72, he broke with literary tradition and employed the idioms and constructions of spoken language. His stories are imaginative combinations of universal elements from folk legend and include such favourites as “The Ugly Duckling” and “The Emperor's New Clothes.” While some reveal an optimistic belief in the ultimate triumph of goodness and beauty (e.g., “The Snow Queen”), others are deeply pessimistic. Part of what makes his tales compelling is the way they identify with the unfortunate and outcast. He also wrote plays, novels, poems, travel books, and several autobiographies.

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Hans-Dietrich Genscher (born March 21, 1927) is a German politician and member of the Free Democratic Party (FDP). He was Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1974 to 1982 and, after a two-week pause, from 1982 to 1992, making him Germany's longest serving Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor.

Biography

Early life

Genscher was born at Reideburg (Province of Saxony), near Halle, in what later became East Germany. At a young age, Genscher joined the Hitler Youth and later served as a member of the Air Force Support Personnel (Luftwaffenhelfer) in the Army from 1943 to 1945. After reaching 18 years of age (1945) he became a member of the Nazi Party, despite regulations encouraging active duty military members to avoid holding membership in political organizations (these regulations were widely ignored in the later days of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Germany).

Genscher fought as a young man in the Wehrmacht at the end of the Second World War. In 1945, Genscher was a young soldier in General Walther Wenck's 12th Army. He participated in Wenck's ill-fated relief effort during the Battle for Berlin which Hitler saw as a last roll of the dice to save the besieged city. While Wenck's attack was unable to relieve or save the city of Berlin, he was able link up with the remnants of Colonel General (Generaloberst) Theodor Busse's 9th Army. Together, they marched what was left of both armies, along with many civilians, to the American lines and surrendered. For this reason, Genscher briefly became an American and British prisoner of war. After World War II, he studied law and economics at the universities of Halle and Leipzig (1946-1949) and joined the East German Liberal Democratic Party (LDPD) in 1946.

Political career

In 1952, Genscher fled to West Germany, where he joined the Free Democratic Party (FDP). He passed his second state examination in law in Hamburg in 1954 and became a solicitor in Bremen.

Overcoming criticisms of his involvement with the Nazi Party at a young age, in 1965 at the age of 38, Genscher was elected to the West German parliament for the first time from Bremen, a seat he would hold until his retirement in 1998. After serving in several party offices, he was appointed Minister of the Interior by Chancellor Willy Brandt, whose Social Democratic Party was in coalition with the FDP, in 1969; in 1974, he became foreign minister and Vice Chancellor.

In 1972 while Minister for the Interior, he rejected Israel’s offer to send an Israeli special forces unit to Germany to deal with the Black September hijacking of the 1972 Summer Olympics which led to the Munich massacre. The German government said they could deal with it themselves. They were wrong and it ended in a bloody shootout at Fürstenfeldbruck Air Base which left 11 hostages, 5 terrorists, and 1 German policeman dead. Genscher's popularity with Israel declined further when he endorsed the handing over of the three captured hijackers to the Palesetinians following the hijacking of a Lufthansa plane on October 29 1972. This was widely believed to be a setup (German - Palestinian collusion) and led to further criticism of the German government for negotiating with hijackers. Around this time, German relations with Israel, already strained after the Holocaust deteroriated even further still.

In the SPD-FDP coalition, he helped shape Brandt's policy of deescalation with the communist East, commonly known as Ostpolitik, which was continued under Helmut Schmidt after Brandt's resignation in 1974.

Still, Genscher was one of the FDP's driving forces when, in 1982, the party switched sides from its coalition with the SPD to support the CDU/CSU in their Constructive Vote of No Confidence to have Helmut Schmidt replaced with Helmut Kohl as Chancellor. Despite the great controversy that accompanied this switch, he remained one of the most popular politicians in West Germany. He retained his posts as foreign minister and vice chancellor through German reunification and until 1992, when he stepped down for health reasons. Some believe his 18-year tenure as foreign minister made him the longest-serving holder of such an office anywhere in the world.

Reunification efforts

He is mostly respected for his efforts that helped end the Cold War, to lead to German reunification, when, in eastern Europe, the communist government toppled; for example, he visited Poland to meet Lech Wałęsa as early as 1988. In 1988, he was awarded the Prize For Freedom of the Liberal International. One event remembered by many is his September 30, 1989 speech from the balcony of the German embassy in Prague, in whose court yard thousands of East German citizens had assembled to flee to the west, when he announced that he had reached an agreement with the communist government that the refugees could leave: "We have come to you to tell you that today, your departure ..." (German: "Wir sind zu Ihnen gekommen, um Ihnen mitzuteilen, daß heute Ihre Ausreise ..."). After these words, the speech drowned in cheers.

In 1991, Genscher raced to recognize the Republic of Croatia in the Croatian War of Independence shortly after the Serbian attack on Vukovar. The rest of the European Union was pressured to follow suit soon afterward. Historically Germany has had a close collaboration with Croatia. Germany was active in putting together the coalition against Slobodan Milosovic.

Genscher was also an active participant in the further development of the European Union, taking active part in the Single European Act Treaty negotiations in the mid 1980s, as well as the joint publication of the Genscher-Colombo plan with Italian Prime Minister Colombo which advocated further integration and deepening of relations in the European Union towards a more federalist European State.

Career after politics

Genscher did not run for reelection in 1998. Since then, he has been active as a lawyer, in a public company, and in bona-fide international relations organizations. He founded his own Hans-Dietrich Genscher Consult GmbH in 2000.

See also

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