György

György

Ligeti, György, 1923-2006, Hungarian composer. He studied music in Romania and Hungary, and was a teacher at the Budapest Academy of Music until he fled to Vienna (1956) after the Soviet invasion of Hungary. He worked (1957-58) at Cologne's electronic music studio and later taught at music schools in Darmstadt (1959), in Stockholm (1961), at Stanford (1972), and in Hamburg beginning in 1973. In the 1950s he began composing electronic music, such as Artikulation (1958), and came to worldwide attention with his orchestral Atmosphères (1961). An extremely innovative composer who became a key figure in Europe's musical avant garde, Ligeti created a distinctive and highly influential style of music that relies on the density and texture of sound masses. Some of his works also employ a satirical wit. From the 1980s on his music tended to be somewhat melodic. His compositions include orchestral works, e.g., Lontano (1967) and concertos for the violin (1989-93) and horn (1998-2001); chamber music, e.g. Trio for Violin, Horn, and Piano (1982); keyboard works, e.g., Etudes for Piano (1985-90); theater pieces, e.g., Aventures (1962) and the comic opera Le Grand Macabre (1976, rev. 1997); and choral works, e.g., Lux Aeterna (1966) and Clocks and Clouds (1973).

See György Ligeti in Conversation (1983); biographies by P. Griffiths (1983) and R. Toop (1999); studies by F. Sallis (1996), M. Lobanova (2002), and R. Steinitz (2003); R. W. Richart, György Ligeti: A Bio-Bibliography (1991).

Bessenyei, György, 1747-1811, Hungarian dramatist and writer. In Vienna he came in contact with French rationalism and was an ardent follower of Voltaire and the Encyclopedists. Bessenyei's major importance lay in his encouraging the revival of the Hungarian language, rather than in the merits of his own works. His play The Philosopher (1777) was among the first modern comic works written in Hungarian. Bessenyei has been called the father of modern Hungarian literature.
Lukács, György, 1885-1971, Hungarian writer, one of the foremost modern literary critics. Converted to Communism in 1918, Lukács served (1919) in the cabinet of Béla Kun. On Kun's fall he fled and lived in Berlin until the rise of Hitler, when he went to the Soviet Union. In 1945 he returned to Hungary, became professor of aesthetics at Budapest, and was important in the Communist party and in national intellectual life. He was attacked for his sympathy for Western literature as expressed in The Destruction of Reason (1954), and after the Hungarian revolution he was stripped of political importance. Lukács' powerful criticism combines Marxist social theory with aesthetic sensibility, flexibility, and humanism. His central theme, expounded in History and Class Consciousness (1923, tr. 1971), is the link between creative works and the social struggle. His works include studies on Goethe (1947, tr. 1969), Hegel (1948), Lenin (1970), and Solzhenitsyn (1970, tr. 1971) as well as on Marxism and literary values. His other writings include The Historical Novel (1955, tr. 1962) and his outstanding Studies in European Realism (1946, tr. 1950). His Political Writings, 1919-1929 was translated in 1972.

See studies by G. Lichtheim (1970) and E. Bahn and R. G. Kunzer (1972).

György is a Hungarian version of the name George. Some notable people with this given name:

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