Gutland is not an homogeneous region, and includes five main sub-regions: the Valley of the Seven Castles, Little Switzerland, the Luxembourg plateau, the Moselle valley, and the Red Lands. Despite its variety, Gutland does have general geographic characteristics, both physical and human, that separate it from the Oesling.
Unlike the sparsely-populated Oesling, Gutland is relatively urbanised. Whereas the Oesling has only one town with a population larger than 2,000 people, Gutland has four with a population of over 15,000. However, Gutland's urban areas are mostly congregated in the cantons of Esch-sur-Alzette and Luxembourg, whereas some other parts of Gutland are almost as uninhabited as the Oesling.
Gutland is lower lying and flatter than the Oesling; . Geologically, Gutland is predominantly a large Jurassic-Triassic sandstone formation, part of the Lorrainian system; the Oesling is predominantly Devonian schist and quartz. Both are wooded, but the Oesling's forests are more numerous and thicker, a testament to the slower pace of human development in the Oesling. Most of the Gutland is fertile agricultural territory (hence the name).