San Luis Potosí is located in the central-western part of the state of San Luis Potosí at 22.16°N, 100.98°W. In the census of 2005 the city had a population of 685,934 while the municipality had a population of 730,950. The municipality has an area of 1,443.14 km² (557.2 sq mi). The metropolitan area of Greater San Luis Potosí, which includes the neighboring municipality of Soledad de Graciano Sánchez, had a population of 957,753.
The city is named after Louis IX of France (also known in Mexico as San Luis Rey de Francia, Saint Louis, King of France), its patron saint. The Potosí was added in reference to the fabulously rich mines of Potosí, Bolivia, discovered some forty years before the city was founded. The city is known for its European influenced architecture. Architecturally, downtown San Luis is very similar to cities in Spain.
A Franciscan mission was established in the city in 1583, nine years before the city's founding in 1592. San Luis grew rapidly thanks to the region's rich gold and silver mines, a source of the Mexican treasures that filled the Manila galleons.
The Plan of San Luis Potosí, issued November 20 1910, was the opening shot of Mexico's revolution against the dictator Porfirio Díaz. The Mexican presidential election of 1910 was stolen when Díaz had his opponent Francisco I. Madero arrested and imprisoned. Madero fled and issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí, declaring the election void and calling upon Mexicans to take up arms against the government.
Today, the downtown is one of plazas and colonial architecture. The "Plaza de Armas" is home to a cathedral and governor's palace (1770), and chatting couples and families enjoying popsicles can be seen around the city at times. The nearby "Templo de Nuestra Señora del Carmen," with its colorful tiled domes and famous altars, is considered among Mexico's finest churches. In addition, San Luis is home to the bullring Plaza de Toros Fermin Rivera.
Outside the city center, a modern industrial city has begun to grow.
The Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP) is in the city. Based on a Jesuit College founded in 1624, the Instituto Científico y Literario was raised to the category of a university in 1923, and is recognized as one of Latin America's best universities.
Potosinos (as residents of the city are referred to) are proud of their bright orange enchiladas potosinas, often served fried with refried beans and guacamole.
The nearby town of Santa María del Río provides the state with its sparkling mineral water, Agua de Lourdes. The water fills both store shelves and the cocktails of Potosinos, who claim the water can cure a hangover.
San Luis Potosí is considered the tenth largest metropolitan area in Mexico, with a population of approximately one million inhabitants. The city is a major commercial and industrial center worldwide. It lies in an economically advantageous area at the heart of the "triangle" formed by the the three largest cities in Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. In recent years, the city has attracted the attention of European and American investors due to political, social and economic stability. This has led to the opening of large multinational companies that have aided in the city's economic development . Recently San Luis Potosi and its metropolitan area was named the third best city in which to live in Mexico, according to a survey conducted by the magazine The Investor.
In recent years the city has faced a boom in the construction of buildings and museums. Among the most prominent are the Maze Museum of Science and Arts, which was an investment of more than $ 200 million pesos, in 9000 m2 of land, located in the Park Tangamanga I. The project was designed by architect Ricardo Legorreta and promoted by the governor of San Luis Potosi, Marcelo de los Santos Fraga. It is a museum of aesthetic proportions similar to that of Papalote Museum of Children in Mexico City, with the addition that the materials used in its construction, especially the quarry, make it a real building manufacturing Potosino. The floor of the museum occupies a total of 6.5 hectares which have gardens with species endemic to the region and a central source. Its interior, divided in a total of six rooms arranged in galleries whose proportions will allow visitors to make an interactive tour that will switch themes of the art museum with samples of science and technology.
Currently the two tallest buildings in the capital are the Building EME built in 1988, the building measured 64 metres to the top floor, with my 75 spiral with the antenna 98 metres, has 17 floors, with 10 levels of parking at the street for a capacity of 1500 cars, this building houses offices mixed, it remains Building Muniz Werger 58 metres up the top floor, with the spiral 65 meters, with the antenna 80 metres and 15 storeys, with 2 elevators (elevators) its construction began in 1991 and finished in 1993 is considered the most modern building in the city.
There are currently two buildings under construction and five buildings in the project, Corporate Tangamanga that measured 41 m will have 14 floors, its construction began in 2005 and will end in 2008, this building houses offices and mixed Star Medical Tower, 40 metres and will have 8 floors. The buildings that are planned are: the first is to be World Trade Center of San Luis Potosi to be 30 floors and its height is 130 m, its construction will begin in mid-2008. Also planned is the Marriot Hotel San Luis Potosi to be 17 floors and its height will be between 80 m 100 m, followed three residential towers in the area Sierra Azul a height of approximately 40 meters with a total of 30 floors, plus a building called residecial Vallarta, 8-story tower that is located at Avenida Carranza and other residential tower located in Lomas of about 7 floors.
The city's transportation consists of a public system based on urban buses that move throughout the metropolitan area.
Besides the public transportation, the city contains one of the highest concentrations of Taxis.
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport is the city's main airway point. It is located around 17km from the city's downtown, and it is the state's most important airway terminal.
The city also hosts the professional basketball team, Los Santos de San Luis which is one of the most important teams of the league.
The institutions of higher education that offer degrees at the bachelor level are:
IPICYT, UASLP and EL Colegio San Luis are also world class research institutions that offer Doctorate degrees.