Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northeastern Australia. It is the homeland of, and is owned by, the Anindilyakwa people (who still speak the isolated Anindilyakwa language).
Groote Eylandt lies approximately 50 km from the Northern Territory mainland and eastern coast of Arnhem Land (approximately 630 km from Darwin). The island measures approximately 50 km from east to west and 60 km north—south, a total area of some 2,260 km². It is generally quite low-lying, with an average height above sea level of 15 m. Its geographic coordinates are . It was named by the explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and is Dutch for "Large Island" in a now-archaic spelling.
The island has until recently been open to the public only with permission, and the local Aboriginal Land Council has not encouraged tourism. Typically, a permit from the Anindilyakwa Land Council office is required to visit the island. There is now a resort style hotel and a sportfishing lodge on the island. The island is becoming renowed for is fine aboriginal rock art sites,arts and crafts and outstanding sportfishing including Sailfish, Marlin, Spanish Mackeral, Giant Trevally, Queenfish and Coral Trout.
Groote Eylandt was converted to Aboriginal freehold title land following the passing of the Aboriginal Land Rights (NT) Act of 1976.
On May 20th, 2008, the Federal Government signed a deal with local Aboriginies from Groote Eylandt, to lease land to the Government for 40 years. In return the government will spend money in the community with the aim of improving housing, education and health in the area.