Species-wise, only two sentient species exist on Nirn. One species are the Ehlnofey, of which all men, mer and beast folk (save Argonians) are members. The other Species are the Hist, of which the Hist and Argonians are members.
Their unique abilities have changed throughout the series. In Morrowind and Oblivion they had a weakness to fire, frost, and shock magic, but boasted the greatest magicka bonus of all the races, while their 'pure' bodies give them greater resistance to diseases. However, in The Elder Scrolls: Arena and Daggerfall, the first two games in the series, they had none of those strength and weaknesses but instead boasted immunity to paralyzing magical effects.
Altmer is the elven name of their race, meaning High Folk, and most likely a derivation of the name of the first race of elves, the Aldmer, meaning First or Elder Folk. They consider themselves the successors of the Aldmer and the highest of all races. Unlike men, who believe themselves to have been created along with the world by the gods, Elves believe themselves to be descended from these gods, calling them the Aedra, "Ancestors". Imperial propaganda (presented in the leaflet 'A Pocket Guide to the Empire' which shipped with the game Redguard) initially portrayed them as arrogant in their superiority and heartless to the point of inhumanity, suggesting that they euthanize nine out of ten children in their quest for racial 'perfection'. In truth the same leaflet makes many other such anti-elven statements in a manner akin to real-world state-sanctioned racism. A new edition of the same fictional 'guide' was shipped with Oblivion which contained a much more favourable view of the Altmer, mentioning deep class and social struggles in which the young were rebelling against the notion of their race's superiority in general and the superiority of the Altmeri nobility in particular with many even abandoning worship of the traditional Altmeri pantheon of gods altogether.
At one point the Ayleids controlled the entirety of the Imperial Province of Cyrodiil, and enslaved the Cyrodiilic and Nordic populations (which at that point were both part of the same prototypical race of men). During this time, the Ayleids made great strides in the arcane arts. The downfall of the Ayleid civilization was a combination of cultural hubris and fermenting revolution amongst their slaves. With the blessing of the Aedra, a slave named Alessia led a revolt that resulted in the inexorable destruction of the Ayleid civilization. The surviving Ayleids frequently showed up as civil servants to the nobility in the Alessian empire, or fled to Valenwood and interbred with the Bosmer. The last known King of the Ayleids was the ruler of the city of Nenalata who controlled eastern Cyrodiil.
Also, in the expansion to TES IV: Oblivion, Knights of the Nine, it is revealed that the Ayleids held a close relationship with the Daedric Princes. It is implied that they used the Daedric magic to increase their strength to the point where they could conquer the Cyrodiilic and Nordic races, as mentioned above. This could have been a contributing factor to the Aedra giving their aid to the human races against the Ayleids to help destroy or otherwise cripple Daedric influence in Nirn.
White Gold Tower, the central spire of the Imperial City in Cyrodiil, was the central temple of the Ayleids. It now serves as the Imperial Palace for the Tamrielic Empire. The rest of their capital city was either razed or buried beneath the Imperial City.
By the Second Era, the Ayleids were driven into a state many would regard as "primitive" (hence Wild Elves) and lived deep within the forests of Cyrodiil, though little is still known of modern Ayleids and their culture. Their tribes apparently possessed wildly disparate cultures, but shared a thread of xenophobia, likely remaining from the Alessian Reformation when Ayleidic culture was nearly destroyed. The last reported sighting of an Ayleid occurred nearly a thousand years before the events of the Elder Scrolls games. It is unknown whether a few Ayleids still survive in the wilds of Cyrodiil, or whether their ancient race finally expired and passed into memory.
The Green Pact has also heavily impacted Bosmeri cuisine, combat, and weaponry. They have developed methods of fermenting meat and milk to develop powerful alcoholic beverages and weapons such as bows are often made of treated and shaped bones. Most notable about Bosmeri combat is their stipulation that a combatant must consume an enemy's corpse within a short time after killing them. This has led to changes in approaches to combat, such as fasting and planning family feasts following a battle.
Bosmer are unique among the races of Tamriel in that they possess the ability to transform their shapes. According to legend, the Bosmer witnessed the death of Yffre, the first of the Ehlnofey to die. In his passing, his spiritual energies formed an Earthbone, a natural law, to limit certain aspects of the world. Yffre's Earthbone placed a limit on the ability of a being to change its form and nature, as previously they could change them at will. However, the Bosmer, having witnessed the formation of the Earthbone, learned how to manipulate it to avoid its restrictions. The most notable of their uses of this ability is the Wild Hunt, a ritual known only to the shaman of Valenwood. Reserved to protect Valenwood from invading forces, the ritual permanently transforms all participants into mindless, blood-thirsty monsters, who will then consume all of their enemies and then themselves. The Bosmer have noted that all monsters in the world were born from previous Wild Hunts.
The Chimeri Exodus was led by the prophet Veloth, who later became a prominent saint in the Tribunal Temple, in the Merethic Era and was done so the Chimer could practice Daedra worship. The Dunmer attribute the inspiration for this exodus to the Daedric Prince Boethiah. They say he ate a prominent figure of the Aldmeri religion, Trinimac, and used his voice to show the Chimer the lies of the Aedra, who the Aldmer worshiped. He spoke of various ways in which they should live and demonstrated how to complete the Exodus. Other Daedric Princes, such as Mephala and Azura, initiated other changes and taught other lessons to the early Chimer, as well.
A possible hint to the appearance of the Chimer can be seen in Morrowind in the persons of Vivec and Almalexia, who were both of the Chimer race before the formation of the Tribunal. They appear to have been similar in height and build to Dunmer, with a coloring similar to Altmer. As the Chimer were actually a splinter faction of the Altmer, this is not surprising.
Native-born Dunmer tend to look down on "outlanders", which are other races or Dunmer born outside of Morrowind, though the intensity of this xenophobia varies from place to place. The land from which the Dunmer hail is to the far east of the Empire and is commonly known as Morrowind (which contains the island of Vvardenfell). Slavery is practiced in Morrowind, and slaves are mostly either of Khajiit or Argonian descent, although some men and elves are also enslaved there, a practice that had been more common in the past. The Empire of Tamriel has a ban on slavery but, as part of the terms of Morrowind's entrance into the Empire, Dunmer were allowed to keep their own sacred and traditional laws. However, in the sequel to Morrowind, Oblivion, it is revealed that slavery has been abolished and the slaves freed by the king of Morrowind Province, Hlaalu Helseth, with House Dres and House Hlaalu supporting the move. This can be discovered through dialogue with recurring characters from Morrowind.
Though some Dunmer, especially of House Hlaalu, have become assimilated into Imperial and foreign culture, almost all retain many of their traditions and values, and some Dunmer even prefer living a tribal life as Ashlanders - in small, tight-knit tribes in the deserts and scorched plains of the Ashlands and on the plains of the Grazelands. In the Ashlands, native tribes rule without laws or care for government, and live strictly by honour codes, rituals and ancient traditions usually dictated by a wise woman or seer. Historically, half of the ancient Dunmer chose this lifestyle, with the others creating or joining the Great Houses and establishing such cities as Balmora or Vivec. The land is so harsh and dangerously infested with creatures such as Alits and cliff racers that westerners and Imperial garrisonmen dare not venture out of the safety of Dunmer settled areas. Dunmer do not ride horses, or own them for that purpose - rather, horses in Morrowind are raised for the slaughter, to be eaten as food. This fact mentioned, with some hesitation, by Morrowind's level designer Gary Noonan, during a development chat as a cautionary note against the possible inclusion of rideable horses in The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind. A chat in which Morrowind's lead character designer also assured expectant consumers that, in Morrowind, there would be "no horse eating allowed". Horses were definitively excluded from the game by Todd Howard in February 2001. Ken Rolston offered the Dunmer diet as a rationale for why the game ended up without them.
The Dunmer themselves, previously known as the Chimer, or 'changed folk' due to their worship of the Daedra, rather than the Aedra (Gods) worshipped by the other Aldmer in Summerset, traditionally gained their dark skin as a result of the Battle of Red Mountain. It was in this battle that the Dwemer vanished. The Dwemer are a major part of Dunmeri history. During the battle, all Dwemer mysteriously disappeared, presumably by their own technology. Though the change in the elves' skin tone was traditionally interpreted as the will of Azura, alternative theories certainly exist. The Dwemer's complex technology could have been the cause instead, as it functioned on a technological level incomprehensible to the "old-world" style, horses-and-swords environment present in the Elder Scrolls world. The official Imperial line of thought, however, is that the Dunmer simply exterminated the Dwemer and that their bluish-grey skin is the result of adaptation to their harsh, rather volcanic environment.
Records of Dwemer activity date back to before the First Era, most notably in the Vvardenfell region (Vvardenfell, in Dwemeris, means "City of the Strong Shield"), which has the highest concentration of Dwemer ruins of any land in Tamriel. Feuding between Chimer and Dwemer continued until the First Council, when the Dwemer and Chimer unite to expel the Nords from Morrowind. One clan of Dwemer, the Rourken, refused to make peace with the Chimer, and their patriarch threw his ceremonial warhammer, Volendrung, across Tamriel, proclaiming that his clan would settle where it landed. Over time, they settled in modern-day Hammerfell (explaining that region's name), home of the Redguards.
Eventually, however, tensions developed between the Chimer and Dwemer once again. A great war erupted between them, eventually leading to the mysterious disappearance of the Dwemer during The Battle of Red Mountain. The difficulty was prompted by the discovery of a mythological artifact known as the Heart of Lorkhan by the Dwemer, deep in the mountains' bowels. The Chief Tonal Architect Kagrenac, their de facto religious leader, devised a set of tools (Sunder, Keening, and Wraithguard) to manipulate the Heart to instill divinity to his people, but the spell failed and caused all known Dwemer to vanish (Varying accounts state that their connection to the heart was severed, although this seems unlikely. Other accounts suggest that Kagrenac used his Tools to release the Dwemer from the Mortal Plane, but this is even more implausible). Since 1E 668, no word has been heard of the Dwemer, with the notable exception of Yagrum Bagarn, who resides in the Corprusarium of Tel Fyr. Apparently, he was absent from the Mortal Plane at the time of the disappearance, visiting an Outer Realm, an alternate dimension. His 3000 years of exploration and 500 years of investigation have yielded no leads on the presence of his people on Mundus or any other plane of existence currently known.
There are many mysteries among the Dwemer creations left behind. Mages Guild investigators have discovered that if one of the centurion spiders is taken away from Vvardenfell, it gradually becomes more sluggish, eventually going into a state of torpor. Even more curious is that upon return, the spider re-activates back to normal aggressive levels, as if sensing the presence of the Dwemer ruins. Strangely, the Dwemer robots reactivate in the lands of the Redguard also.
Dwemer artifacts are highly prized throughout the Empire, although since they are technically the property of the Emperor under the charter of the Imperial Society of Architecture and Design as well as the Imperial Historical Society, the sale of them is illegal. This does not seem to stop artifacts from falling off the backs of wagons or otherwise disappearing into various collections. Dwemer weapons and armour are especially valued, renowned for their excellent craftsmanship and sturdy design. However, acquisition of these artifacts is extremely dangerous, because of the remote location of the ruins, and the multitude of aged and no-longer reliable Dwemeri machinery within, including the Steam Centurion and other automata, as well as sophisticated traps of which the Dwemer were particularly fond.
There are two mutually exclusive hypotheses about the fate of the Falmer. The Skaal claim that the Rieklings are descended from the Falmer. On the other hand, an Altmer scholar in Raven Rock claims that the Rieklings are merely snow goblins, and that the Snow Elves have blended with the other elven races through interbreeding. The in game book Fall of the Snow Prince seems to support the latter hypothesis. It chronicles the defeat of the Snow Prince, an elven leader, at the Battle of Moesring.
Bretons originated in the First Era. A series of raids on Nedic holdings by the Aldmer, resulted in the destruction of all human settlements in Skyrim. Many Nedes were enslaved some of whom were used as pleasure slaves and gave birth to mixed offspring. These offspring were termed Manmer by Nords. While the Aldmer maintained control of Tamriel, the Manmer lived as lower-class citizens, supporting their meric brethren. After the Aldmer lost their foothold, the remaining Manmer interbred with the controlling human races. The Bretons of modern-day Tamriel have a much-diluted meric ancestry, seen in their higher magical affinity and paler skin and taller stature.
Imperials were not a playable race in Daggerfall, and "the Imperial Province" (that is, Cyrodiil), was declared to have "no indigenous race". The Imperial race is playable in Morrowind as well as Oblivion.
The Imperial race is further divided into two sub-races: the Colovians; independent rural folk in the west of Cyrodiil, and the cosmopolitan Nibenese occupying the rest of Cyrodiil. The Colovians historically are not as reverent to the established Cyrodiilic religion as the Nibenese.
Imperials were originally brought to Cyrodiil as slaves to the Heartland High Elves, or Ayleids. The Imperials have been in control of Cyrodiil, along with the rest of the Empire, since the fall of the Ayleids. Imperials have had many wins and losses in the wars of the past, some through struggle, others through annihilation of the opponents' armies. Wars like the one that led to the conquering of Morrowind were won by default, due to a mere peace treaty.
The Nedic hero Ysgramor, leader of a great colonizing fleet to Tamriel, developed a runic transcription of Nordic speech based on Aldmeri principles, and was the first recorded human historian. Ysgramor's fleet landed at Hsaarik Head at the extreme northern tip of Skyrim's Broken Cape. They built the legendary city of Saarthal and lived with the Aldmer in relative peace until the Aldmeri began to notice the comparatively fast growth of the Nedic people's population.
The Elves drove the Men away during the Night of Tears, but Ysgramor soon returned with his Five Hundred Companions. These Five Hundred Companions settled and those who stayed in Skyrim became the Nords, with those going west breeding with the Aldmer and becoming the Bretons and those going south becoming the Imperials.
The remaining Nedes raided Elvish settlements along the coast from Skyrim and Atmora until 1E68. The last two ships from Atmora pulled into a harbor with more than half their crews dead. Atmora had become a frozen wasteland, and all who still lived there had died.
When designing the Nordic people and culture, Bethesda Softworks took inspiration from a combination of real-world historical sources, including most prominently the Scandinavian kingdoms, northern (especially Baltic) Russia, the Jutland peninsula, and northern Scotland as seen with the nord ability of woad, a substance used by Scandinavian and Celtic peoples. In terms of literature, a page may have been taken from Tolkien in the form of the Dúnedain, the last descendants of an ancient race of mythical High Men.
Redguards (in their own language 'Yokudans', taken simply from the name of their homeland) hail from the western continent of Yokuda, which sank into the sea in ancient times. This was probably the result of a tectonic shift in the form of an earthquake or a volcanic eruption, however, the Redguards seem under the impression that it was in some way their fault. Upon the sinking of their homeland, which apparently was predictable to some degree, the Yokudan fleet set sail to the east, where they shored at the continent of Tamriel, in the province of Hammerfell.
At the time, Hammerfell was populated largely with Orsimer (Orcs) who were known for their toughness and ferocity in battle. The Yokudans, knowing they must settle to survive as a people, launched a Ra'gada a "warrior wave", at the shores of Hammerfell, conscripting every man and boy capable of wielding a sword into the strong and capable Yokudan military. They attacked the Orc towns and cities in lightning raids, took no prisoners and after only a few brutal months, had established a strong presence along the western shores of Hammerfell. From this foothold they continued to launch assault after assault, eventually succeeding in nearly exterminating the Orcs, and making way for the High King and the Yokudan royalty, known as Na-Totambu, to arrive with safety in Hammerfell, without fear of assassination. It is from this Ra'gada that the Redguards take their name. By defeating the superhumanly strong and hardy Orcs, they solidified their place in history as the greatest warriors in the known world.
Their origin is unknown. Some say they are the result of Nedes and Argonians interbreeding, others say that they were simply Nedic settlers that adapted to life in Black Marsh.
The Tsaesci once invaded Tamriel in 1E 2703, but were driven back by the forces of Emperor Reman I. Surviving Tsaesci in Cyrodiil served as mercenaries and personal guards of nobles. They left many influences on the Imperials, including the Dai-katana and Dragonscale armor, as well as the uniform of the Blades and the Red Dragon symbol of the Empire. Several Tsaesci even served as Potentate, acting in place of the Emperor when the Reman dynasty ended. The first Potentate, Versidue-Shaie, ushered the Tamrielic Empire into the Second Era, an era of chaos and upheaval. He, and his heir, ruled Tamriel for four hundred years, until the Akaviri Potentate was assassinated by the Morag Tong in 2E 430.
Hist are, in fact, great sentient trees worshipping the eternal, immutable, god of chaos, Sithis. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find many canonical statements about the Hist in game lore. The Annotated Anuad gives us some information, telling us that the Hist are one of two races to survive the "twelve worlds of Creation," along with the Ehlnofey, and that the Hist had a great homeland sunk beneath the sea by the wars of the Ehlnofey. It is never certain how much credence one should give to a creation myth. Any statements regarding the Hist's survival of the twelve worlds of a Creation should be treated with due suspicion.
Argonians are known to have deep connections with the Hist, calling themselves "people of the root," and licking the leaking sap of their trunks in religious rites.
In Oblivion, if the player chooses to embark on the Fighters' Guild faction quest, they will eventually come to a mission in which they must discover the source of the Blackwood Company's power. The player discovers that the Blackwood Company is using the sap of a Hist tree. They succeeded in smuggling a whole Hist tree from Black Marsh in order to have a constant supply of the illegal sap.
To date, no Imga have appeared in an Elder Scrolls game, and the only Morrowind reference to the Imga appears in the 'Pocket Guide to the Empire' which describes the provinces of the Cyrodilic Empire as of the year 864 of the Second Era. However, their existence has since recently been re-established with the addition of an ingame book in Oblivion, detailing the travels of an adventurer trying to return his stash of booze kidnapped by a group of Imga.
Khajiit are chiefly one of the underclasses in Morrowind, usually working as slaves or living on the street as beggars. They have a large presence in the Thieves' Guild, partly for this reason.
Highway-men gangs in the province of Cyrodiil seem to be exclusively Khajiit which at first might have been thought of as Thieves' Guild affiliation, but is disproved because of the nonviolent manner in which The Thieves' Guild conducts its work.
The Ka Po'Tun, another feline race, share most of their characteristics, as far as known, with the Khajiit, which can be lead to make the assumption that they are a spawn of race of the Khajiit that resides in the Akavir nation.
They are generally hated by the Argonians and looked down upon by all the other races.
The Daedra are beings of change, with some Daedra being less than good and others being outright evil. Unlike the Aedra, an individual has the opportunity to receive missions and rewards directly from the Daedra by making offerings either at Daedric statues scattered around Cyrodiil or on certain days or conditions. The Daedra inhabit the vast realms of Oblivion, the space surrounding the mortal plane. The Daedric Princes generally rule over their own plane of Oblivion. In Elder Scrolls IV, the player can visit up to three such planes, including the planes of Mehrunes Dagon (prince of destruction), Sheogorath (prince of madness), and Boethiah (prince of deceit and treason).
LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE LAS QUESERÍAS RURALES DE CAJAMARCA: RETOS Y DIFICULTADES DE UNA ESTRATEGIA COLECTIVA DE ACTIVACIÓN1
Jul 01, 2005; RESUMEN La mundialización marca el desarrollo de las AIR (Agro Industries Rurales) que tienen que mejorar su competitividad. En...