The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Ulfilas (also known as Wulfila), used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. Before its creation in the fourth century in Nicopolis ad Istrum (modern Bulgaria), Gothic was possibly written in runes. It was primarily used by Ulfilas to translate the Bible into Gothic. It appears to be derived from the Greek alphabet with some borrowings from the Latin one. The names clearly derive from the names of the Runic alphabet.
As with the Greek alphabet, letters were also used as numerals. When used as numerals, letters were generally written with an overdot or overbar. There are two numerals (representing 90 and 900) with no phonetic value.
The letter names are recorded in a 9th century manuscript of Alcuin (Codex Vindobonensis 795). Most of them seem to be Gothic forms of names also appearing in the rune poems. The names are given in the reconstructed form of the Gothic words, followed by the spelling of their actual attestation.
|Letter||Translit.||c.f.||Name||IPA||Numeric value||XML Entity|
|𐌰||a||Α||ahsa / aza||1||𐌰|
|𐌱||b||Β||bairkan / bercna||2||𐌱|
|𐌲||g||Γ||giba / geuua||3||𐌲|
|𐌳||d||Δ||dags / daaz||4||𐌳|
|𐌴||e||Ε||aiƕus / eyz||5||𐌴|
|𐌵||q||Π||qairþra (qairthra) / qertra||/kʷ/||6||𐌵|
|𐌷||h||H||hagl / haal||/h/||8||𐌷|
|𐌸||þ, th||Θ||þiuþ (thiuth) / thyth||/θ/||9||𐌸|
|𐌹||i||Ι||eis / iiz||10||𐌹|
|𐌹̈||ï||Ι||eis / iiz||10||𐌹̈|
|𐌺||k||Κ||kusma / chozma||/k/||20||𐌺|
|𐌻||l||Λ||lagus / laaz||/l/||30||𐌻|
|𐌽||n||Ν||nauþs (nauths) / noicz||/n/||50||𐌽|
|𐌾||j||ᛃ||jer / gaar||/j/||60||𐌾|
|𐌿||u||ᚢ||urus / uraz||70||𐌿|
|𐍀||p||Π||pairþra (pairthra) / pertra||/p/||80||𐍀|
|𐍂||r||R||raida / reda||/r/||100||𐍂|
|𐍃||s||S||sauil / sugil||/s/||200||𐍃|
|𐍄||t||Τ||teiws / tyz||/t/||300||𐍄|
|𐍅||w||Υ||winja / uuinne||400||𐍅|
|𐍆||f||F||faihu / fe||/f/||500||𐍆|
|𐍇||x||X||iggws / enguz||/kʰ/||600||𐍇|
|𐍈||ƕ, hw||ƕair / uuaer||/ʍ/||700||𐍈|
|𐍉||o||Ω||oþal (othal) / utal||800||𐍉|
Most of the letters are taken over from the Greek alphabet directly, but a few letters are innovated to accurately express Gothic phonology; these are j, u (likely directly from runic alphabet; u is expressed in Greek as a digraph ου), ƕ, and q (interestingly not derived from Greek Qoppa, which figures merely as the numeral 90 , but a variant of p). þ similarly to Cyrillic Ф seems derived from Greek Φ rather than Θ. r and s appear derived from the Latin rather than the Greek alphabet. Likewise, the shape of f is derived from Latin F rather than Greek digamma, since it takes the place of Φ, not digamma, in alphabetical order. x is only used in proper names and loanwords containing Greek X (xristus "Christ", galiugaxristus "ψευδόχριστος", zaxarias "Zacharias", aivxaristia "eucharist").