See studies by A. Johnston (1980), P. Redpath (1986) and J. Cary (1989).
Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September, 1911 – 19 June, 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. He was also awarded the Booker Prize for literature in 1980, for his novel Rites of Passage, the first book of the trilogy To the Ends of the Earth.
Golding was born at his maternal grandmother's house, 47 Mountwise, St Columb Minor, Newquay, Cornwall, and he spent many childhood holidays there. He grew up at his family home in Marlborough, Wiltshire, where his father was a science master at Marlborough Grammar School (1905 to retirement). Alec Golding was a socialist with a strong commitment to scientific rationalism, and the young Golding and his elder brother Joseph attended the school where his father taught (which should not to be confused with Marlborough College, the "public" boarding school). His mother, Mildred, kept house at 29, The Green, Marlborough, and supported the moderate campaigners for female suffrage. In 1930 Golding went to Oxford University as an undergraduate at Brasenose College, where he read Natural Sciences for two years before transferring to English Literature. He took his B.A. (Hons) Second Class in the summer of 1934, and later that year his first book, Poems, was published in London by Macmillan & Co, through the help of his Oxford friend, the anthroposophist Adam Bittleston.
Publishing success made it possible for Golding to resign his teaching post at Bishop Wordsworth's School in 1961, and he spent that academic year in the United States as writer-in-residence at Hollins College near Roanoke, Virginia. Having moved in 1958 from Salisbury to nearby Bowerchalke, he met his fellow villager and walking companion James Lovelock. The two discussed Lovelock's hypothesis that the living matter of the planet Earth functions like a single organism, and Golding suggested naming this hypothesis after Gaia, the goddess of the earth in Greek mythology.
In 1970 Golding was a candidate for the Chancellorship of the University of Kent at Canterbury, but lost to the politician and leader of the Liberal Party, Jo Grimond. Golding won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1979, the Booker Prize in 1980, and in 1983 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1988.
Golding's later novels include Darkness Visible (1979), The Paper Men (1984), and the comic-historical sea trilogy To the Ends of the Earth (BBC TV 2005), comprising the Booker Prize-winning Rites of Passage (1980), Close Quarters (1987), and Fire Down Below (1989).
The key idea of Lord of the Flies (the title was suggested by Golding's friend TS Eliot) is that people, when removed from civilized society, will devolve and return back to being primitive creatures. Golding portrays this idea throughout the whole book by using different characters. The book is about a group of boys who are stranded on a tropical island without any adults. At first they seem very excited about the situation and vote for one of the boys, Ralph, to be their leader. Another one of the boys, Jack, leaves the group to form his own tribe, which becomes more and more violent and obsessed with hunting pigs and the so-called beast that the boys believe lives on the island. At the end of the book, they try to kill Ralph before they are all rescued by a naval officer. The title of the book comes from a direct translation of the Latin word Beelzebub, meaning the devil. Ralph, the main character in the story, is a fair and decent boy; he is the only boy who will listen to Piggy. Piggy is an overweight boy who is made fun of by everyone else for being fat and because he wears glasses and suffers from asthma, even though he is smarter than the rest.
Ralph continually stresses to them the importance of making a signal fire on top of the mountain, so that any passing ships might see the smoke and come to rescue them. He tells the boys, "The fire is the most important thing on the island. How can we ever be rescued except by luck, if we don't keep a fire going?" The rest of the boys become more savage and are more interested in hunting than keeping the fire going. Eventually even Ralph and Piggy become savage, if only for a moment. When Simon crawls out from the forest in the dark, the boys believe he is the beast, and Ralph and Piggy join in as they beat him to death with their bare hands.
Out of all of the boys the one who changes the most on the island is Jack. He was head boy in his choir, who soon become the hunters, and he is more persistent than Ralph in his desire to become the chief, saying "I ought to be chief, because I'm chapter chorister and head boy". Jack also has an unpleasant personality, expressed when saying "Shut up, Fatty." to Piggy. Jack shows his savageness very early on and later develops an even darker personality. While Jack was at first unable to kill a pig, because of the "knife cutting into living flesh.", he later begins to enjoy the hunting of the pigs with a spear, and is not at all upset by the deaths of other boys. When Piggy falls to his death after being knocked off a cliff, Jack screams "That's what you'll get! I meant that!" In the end everyone but Piggy and Simon, who was killed by Jack's tribe, are lured to join them either by the knowledge that the hunters would provide them with meat, or are tortured and bullied into joining them.
The boys are rescued by a British navy officer; he is shocked to discover that these are British boys that have ended up as savages. If British boys, especially ones as civilised as these, could turn into wild savages then anyone could. The naval officer emphasises this, saying "I should have thought that a pack of British boys - you're all British aren't you? - would have been able to put up a better show than that".