Definitions

Goguryeo_language

Goguryeo language

The Goguryeo language was spoken in the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (37 BCAD 668), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The language is also known as Koguryo, Koguryoic, and Koguryoan. It is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggest that it was similar but not identical to the language of Silla, and influenced by the Tungusic languages. Supporters of the Altaic language family often classify the Goguryeo language as a member of that language family. Most Korean linguists believe that Goguryeo language was closest to the Altaic languages. Striking similarities between Baekje and Goguryeo can also be found, which is consistent with the legends that describe Baekje being founded by the sons of Goguryeo's founder. The Goguryeo names for government posts are mostly similar to those of Baekje and Silla. There are some hypotheses on the classification of the Goguryeo language which is disputed at the present time. Some linguists propose the so-called "Buyeo languages" family that includes the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Old Japanese. Chinese records suggest that the languages of Goguryeo, Buyeo, East Okjeo, and Gojoseon were similar, while the Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe)

Some words of Goguryeo origin can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th to late 14th century) but most were soon replaced with ones of Silla origin.

Vocabulary comparison

The tables below provides a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of sound shifts that have occurred between Goguryeo languages and the main Buyeo and Tungusic languages, along with a selection of minority languages.

English Goguryeo
pronun.
Turkic Mongol Old Japanese Japanese Baekje Silla Middle Korean Korean Tungusic Jurchen Manchu Evenki
ruler kʌi / kai(皆)
kai-sɐ(皆次)

ka(加)Buyeo languages
qaγan
kagan
kaγan(可汗) kami1("ruler")
君#Noun("king, emperor, monarch")
kami
kimi("you")
ka

kisi

nirim
kan

han

kɯm("Gojoseon languages")
kɯi
nim-kɯm
nim-kɯm
*** *** han ***
royal family
(大加)
kochu-ka
(古鄒加)
*** *** kami1-tuka*>koduka
kami2dukasa*>kandukasa ("Shinto priest")
kozuka kənkir-ji("king") kəsə-kan("king")
kəsɯl-han("king")
*** kɯ,kə,kɯn("big") *** *** *** ***
owner(主) i
(伊)
*** *** i("you")
usi("owner")
nuʃi *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
king(太王) *** *** *** *** *** əra-kha
("king")

əryuk("queen")
*** əlusin ("lord, master") ərɯsin ("senior") *** *** əlcin("ambassador, servant") ***
title of
honor
~ ji / ki(支) *** *** ti("father")
di("grand father")
ʨiʨi
ʥiʥi
-ʥi
~ ji / ki(支) ~ ji / ki /di(支,智,至) *** ~ ji *** *** *** ***
excellent shooter
(善射者)
jumong
(朱蒙)
Buyeo languages
*** jəmə("noted bow")
Jobe-Mergen("hunting expert")
tomo(shooter's equipment)
yumi/yu("bow")
tomoe(emblem of tomo)
yumi/yu
*** *** *** ~mani("expert") *** *** jolin-manga ,
julil-muəl(卓琳莽阿)
***
gold so
(蘇)
so-miuən/so-mun
(蘇文)
*** *** saɸi1("cutlery,silver color") sai
sabi("rust")
so
)
so("gold") *** sö("metal")
söh
*** *** sele("iron")
šun("sun")
sigūn("sun")
silver tʃiεt
(折)
tʃiεu-ʃιi/so-l
(召尸)
*** *** ʦuʣu("Tin, tinworks") suzu *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
lead nəi-miuət
namer
(乃勿)
*** *** namari("lead") namari *** *** namɔr nap/납 *** *** *** ***
recover territory
(復舊土)
ta mul
(多勿)
*** *** tamu("to return, to come around, to turn around")
tamuk("to resist, to retaliate")
temuka *** *** *** taɕi ("again")
tø- ("re-")
muli(tsi)- ("repel")
mol-("expel")
*** *** tabu-(to divide,to tear) ***
north(back) je
(提)
jwat
(絶)
ʣo-li
(助利)
椽那部,提那部,絶奴部,後部
arka("back") hoina (Daur huainə)
utara
umara
tʃe>se("back") se("back,height") *** *** tuih tui
("back, behind")
xama *** juleri("front, south")
amargi
amasi("back")
***
south(front) kuan
(灌)
(灌奴部)
kuzey,Ön(front) *** kasira("head,top")
kaɸo("face")
kan-("pre-")
kashira
kao("look, face")
kana-(叶:to serve,to get one's wish)
*** arihi *** kət("surface, look")
arp(front)
*** *** julergi ***
east(left) źwən/sun
(順)
(順奴部)
doğu,sol(left) źeü ,
źegün
a-dʒuma/a-duma("east") azuma *** *** *** wen("left")
sae("east")
źun *** dergi jun
jəgin("left")
west(right) yən
(涓)
(涓奴部)
batı ürüne ,
barun
yom- (the mythological placename of world beyond)
ini-si("west")
yomi("Hades")
niʃi
*** *** *** orɯn("right")
parɯn("right")
xangid *** wargi anŋū(right)
stone *** taš cilaɣu(n) (Classical)
culuu (Khalkha)
šuluu(n) (Buryat)
isi iʃi turak *** tōlh tōl
tok(dialect)
*** *** tahan("steppingstones") ***
rock, cliff (巌,峴,岑) pa-・ιəi/pua-・ιəi
pàI/pa'i
(巴衣,波衣)
pua-ɣei/paxe
(波兮)
*** *** 岩#Noun / 巌#Noun
mama("cliff")
iwao ("great rock, bedrock") *** *** pahoy pawi pax(石・崖)
(Nivkh)
*** wehe ***
land (壌,壤) no
内/奴~弩/悩
nori
奴閭
*** ńurū nu/no("land")
na
no no
buri
nu¨~nu¨ri/nε
bəl
*** bəl

nuri("world")
na ("land") na na(土地),noro(-n) ***
nation (nua) > na
no
內,那,奴,惱
ili ulus(<*hulu-s<* bulu-s) nu/na("land, nation")
na
na *** *** narah nara guru-n(< * buru-n) guru-n(< * buru-n) gurun ***
walled city, fort, castle kol / hol
(忽)
kuru / kolo
(溝婁,屈, 骨)
qol-γan küri-yen 'fence, hedge, device',/qol-γan koɸori("brough, country")
ki2("city")
kōri
-ki
*** *** kolh koɯl
gol
kur ~kur ~kuran *** kuran~ kuren (城, 柵:"castle, citadl")
golo(省:province)
***
capital's names cholbon(卒本)
solbon(率本)
puru-na(不耐,平壤)
cholpon("Venus") čolbaŋ("Venus") *** *** soburi sərabəl
səbəl
shəbɯl seoul
saet-piəl("Venus")
*** *** *** ***
middle (中) kabəl
加火
*** *** kapi>kaɸi(卵"content,egg,result,worth")
kapa>kaɸa("outside")
kai
kawa("side")
*** *** kaβɔn
가ㅸㄴ
kaun(-de)
-gaus/-aus("half")
*** *** *** ***
so big, best māk/mo
(莫)
ma
(馬)
makhara
(莫何邏)
*** *** ma-(prefix to mean "real/great/true/perfect") ma- *** *** *** mal-말
mat 맏("first;eldest;oldest")
maŋga ("strong") *** maŋga ("difficult; tough, strong; somewhat more, somewhat better") maŋa ("strong")
tribal elder
(太大兄)
makha-ha-raji
(莫何何羅支/太大兄)
~ji/ki("title of honor")
兄 laji / haraji("patriarch")
*** *** ma-
kakaɸu-(to undertake,to be under orders)
-dati("patriarch")
-kara("birth, parentage")
ti("father")
di("old guy,grandfather")
ma-
kakaer-(hold)
-dati("appearange")
-kara("reason")
ʨiʨi
ʥiʥi
-ʥi
*** kak-kan

kan-ki/kanji

~ji("title of honor")
*** hara("grand")
~ji("title of honor")
har-abə-ji("grand father")
~achi("legation staff's title")
*** *** mahala("hat, cap")
makta-ra- ("to prise")
***
leader ,chief makli-ji/mori-ji
(莫離支)
~ji("title of honor")
baš(head) *** ma-
kur-i("to command, to manage")
dʒi("old guy,grandfather")
ma-
kuri-
ʥi
*** Marip-gan("king")
Mae-kɯm("king")
maruha
mari("head")
məri("head") *** *** *** ***
summit(峰) süni
(首泥)
*** *** sone1("stony and barren land") *** *** *** sunɯrk tɕəŋsuri ("top of the head") *** *** šun("sun")
sukdun("air")
***
mountain (山) tat / tar
(達)
ma
(馬)
γap-ma
(盒馬 : big mountain)
taγ("mountain") aɣula(n) (Classical Mongolian)
ūl (Khalkh)
ūla (Buryat)
aulə (Daur)
take2("peaks")
yama("mountain")
mure("mountain")
tara
take
yama
*** 督 tɔrɔ(山),
tara(多禮,多羅)
("land")
moyh(山) me
tang,tal("land")
tuk("hill")
orɯm (Jeju dialect)
*** *** alin
tala("field")
mulu("ridge of mountain")
***
tree, wood kil
kιənul, naro?
(斤乙)
i¨("forest")/i¨γac("tree") *** ki2/ ke2 ~ ko2("tree")
ko2nara(a kind of beech) 
ki
konara
*** *** 斤:nal(訓)/kɯn kɯru ("stump; unit for counting trees")
namu 나무 ("tree; wood")
*** *** *** ***
willow tree yoɯɪn
(要隠)
*** *** yana-ki2("willow tree") yana-gi *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
bamboo na
(奈)
*** *** no2(bamboo arrow)
si-no("running bamboo,bamboo grass")
no
ʃino
*** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
pine tree(松) busi/pιu-sie
(夫斯)
pιu-so
(扶蘇)
*** *** matu("pine tree")
pusi("fire wood")
maʦu
ɸuʃi
bu(扶,負)
so(蘇)
*** sol(松)/pos(樺) sol,sonamu *** *** bahiya("pine cone") ***
peach pasi
(波尸)
*** *** *** *** *** *** poksiəŋ
(桃)
poksuŋ-a, poksa (桃) *** *** *** ***
garlic mier
(買尸)
*** maŋgirsun(野蒜) mi1ra("garlic") nira ("garlic chives") *** *** manʌl
(蒜)
manɯl *** *** maca ("garlic chives") ***
grain nabar /niəŋ-biuʌt
仍伐
*** *** nape2>naɸe2("seedling")
ina-ɸo("ear of rice")
mi2("fruit, seed, grain")
mame("grain")
nae
inaho
mame("bean")
*** *** *** nuy("grains of unhulled rice amongst hulled rice")
narak("rice plant; unhulled rice; grain of rice")
*** *** *** ***
root tsʌm (斬) *** *** tukene("root,knot,joint") ʦukene *** pul?(根) pulhuy(根) ppuri tʃamγ(根株)
(Nivkh)
*** da ***
plow (犁) ka-ʃιi
(加尸)
kerci-("to cut, to dig trenches") *** kari("plow")
kuɸa("hoe")
kari
kuwa
*** *** karai(木[杴]・鍬, kal-(plow)
kal(刀)
*** gerbe-("break, snap")
(Nanai)
*** halhan("hoe")/halhan~halgan(犂[鏵]:"plow") gerbe-("break, snap")
ax ・ιo-sie, nərə-si
(於斯)
*** *** wono2("ax") ono *** *** *odzgɔy
(烏子蓋) ("ax")
nɔlh ("blade")
nal ("blade")
nas ("sickle; scythe")
tōkki ("ax")
*** *** anjikū ("hatchet") ***
basin (盆) sʌl (西) *** *** *** *** *** *** sora (盆) ("basin") *** *** *** *** ***
water (水) mi
(米)
mie
(買)
moro
(模盧)
*** mören(江, 海)
müren (沐漣) /moron (木連) (Khitanese)
mi1/mi1du/mi1n-("water") miʣu mi(彌) *** mɨl mul mu mu 沒 muke mū("water")
spring water (泉(井)) əɯl
(於乙):井
iri
(伊梨):泉
bul-a-q/bul-a-γ("fountain, spring") ɯs (水"water") wi ("well; reservoir, irrigation pond") i *** ɯl(乙) umɯl ("well") umul ("well") eri~erri("small river" 川)
(Nivkh)
*** üla ("large river" 江) ***
dike (堤) tu
(吐)
töpü *** take2("higher hill")
tutu-mi("dike")
tu-(to stack,to pile,to gather)
take
ʦuʦumi
ʦu-
*** *** *** əntək
tuk(堤)
*** *** do-("to stop") ***
pond nemi / naymi
(内米)
*** namug ("marsh, swamp") nami1 ("wave") nami mi(r)ji
(蜜地,彌知)
*** *** ? nɛnmul ("stream")
mos ("pond")
nɯpʰ 늪 ("swamp")
namu, lamu ("sea, ocean; lake" 海) *** mūsa ("swamp") ***
branch
(派)
kai (改) *** *** *** *** *** *** karʌi (派) kalɛ (派) *** *** *** ***
river kur
(屈)
na
(那)
köl("lake") *** kaɸa("river") kawa nari(那利)
久麻那利
*** kɔrɔm
nāyh
karam
nɛː
*** *** ula ***
sea patan/padal/padan
(波旦)
pa-sia
(波且)
*** *** wata("sea") wada-ʦu-mi("gods of Sea") *** 波珍 padɔl padah~parʌl pada *** namu namu ***
cow ʃιəu/*sü
(首)
*** *** usi("cow") uʃi *** *** ʃyo/쇼 so *** *** eje("castrated cow") ***
pig (猪) u

o-sie
(烏斯)
o-s^i¨ʌŋ
(烏生)
*doŋuz > domuz *** usi ("ox; cattle")
wi ("pig,boar")
i("boar") *tɕo-nʲi
(猪耳)
*** totʰ 돝 twɛːji, toyaji(dialect), tochi(dialect) *** *** ulgiyan("pig")
ulha("domestic animal")
***
water deer kosya
(古斯也#Noun)
*** *** kuzika("deer") kuzika *** *** *** korani("Manchurian elk")
kōrɛŋi, korɛi (Gyeongsang dialect)
*** *** kandahan ("a kind of deer") ***
horse miel
(滅)
*** mori~muri uma~muma("horse") uma *** *** mʌl/(馬) mal mori
(Nanai)
*** morin ***
swan (鵠) ko-ʏιəi
(古衣)
qoγu *** kubi1>kukuɸi1("swan") kukui/kugui("swan") *** *** kohay
kon
koni *** *** gaha("bird, raven")
gasha("big bird")
***
bear komok
(功木)
*** *** kuma("bear") kuma koma *** kom kōm *** *** *** ***
owl (鵂鶹) ʦu
(租)
*** *** tuku("owl")
ʦu("nest")
ʦuku/mimi-dzuku
su
*** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
rabbit u-si-ɣam/o-sie-həm
(烏斯含)
tawïsγan *** wosagi1/usagi1("rabbit") usagi *** *** thos-gi tho-ggi *** *** *** ***
weasel (狌) yia-ʃιi
(也尸)
*** *** itatʃi(weasel) itaʨi(weasel) *** *** yezï ~ yezɣ-
("fox")
yəu ("fox")
yəsi(dialect)
*** *** *** ***
horn tsιi-nyiak
(次若)
*** *** tuno("horn") ʦuno *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
wing əji, nərəgi
(於支)
*älig > el ("hand") *** tadamgi(arm)
atʃi(foot,walk,rain,money)
aʃi *** *** *** narɛ, nalgɛ *** *** asχa ***
foot (足) γuəi
tor
(廻)
*** *** kuw-("to kick")
ko-yu("to get over")
ker-
koe-
*** *** *** tari *** *** *** ***
mouth huət-ts‘ii/kuërtsi
kútsi/kutui
kolci
(忽次)
ko-ts‘ii
(古次)
kuan/kuen
(串)
*** 훌츠qurc(Khalka)("skewer, spit" 串) kutu~kuti/kuti < *kutui("mouth")
ko2to2("word, speech, language")
kuʨi
koto
*** *** kʌl-(曰: "to say")
koc ("skewer, spit; promontory" 串)
kulrε (Jeju dialect)
kul (South Jeolla dialect)
kar-(曰: "to say")
*** *** *** ***
hair təl(毛乙)>tiəl(鐵)
*** *** tar-u("trail, hang out") tare-ru *** *** *** 毛:təl *** *** tulə(ad:"to outside") ***
tooth kʌi-ʃιi
(皆尸)
*** *** ki1 ("fang; tusk") *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
heart
chest
kor/kιo-sιi
(居尸)
göğüs kökün ko2ko2ro2("heart")
koro("oneself")
kokoro *** *** *** kogäŋi ("core") / kasʰɯm ("chest, heart") *** *** huhun (乳,乳房:"breast, bosom") ***
transverse (横) ・ιo-sie/*es
(於斯)
*** *** yo2ko2("transverse")
yo2k-("to traverse")
yoko
yoker-
*** *** əs/엇 ət *** *** *** ***
valley tan/tuən/t‘ən
(旦,頓,呑)
*** *** tani("valley") tani *** *** tʌn~tuʌn("valley")
təŋgɛ("valley")
*** *** *** *** ***
side edge ka-(・a)
(加阿)
kera *** kado1("side edge,jag")
kari("edge")
kado
kari
*** *** kʌs *** *** kaja-("to cut")
huwesi-("cutter, small blade")
***
ball (丸)

anʃi
(安市)
anʒip
(安十)
*** ənduhə (Daur) *** *** *** *** *** al (x)elū- *** umhan
muheren
elū
layer (重) biar/bιεt
(別)
*** *** pe1>ɸe1("layer") he("layer") *** *** pʌl *** *** *** fe("ex-, past, former") ***
neighbor (隣) ιi-bιuʌt
(伊伐)
*** *** ipa>ipe1>iɸe1("residences") ie *** *** ibɯt (隣) iut (隣) *** *** imiya-("to gather togather") ***
frost sat
(薩)
sat-ɣan/sal-han
(薩寒)
*** *** simo("frost")
sayi/seye
zayi/zaye
("icicle, ice")
simo
sae
*** *** səri *** *** *** juhe ***
lush (菁) ka-tʃιe
(加支)
*** *** kati/katin("lush, dark blue") kaʨi *** *** *** kəch-(蕪)
kis- ("lush, overgrown with weeds, overrun with plants")
*** *** *** ***
group, tribe ul
(于尸)
uruk ("clan") ulus ("people, nation, tribe, horde") uti("family, inside, home")
udi ("tribe,clan,social status of one's family, lineage, birth, surname")
uʨi
uʒi
*** *** ul("relations; relatives; kinsfolk; clan")
uri ("we, us; the Korean people, Koreans")
*** *** *** urse ("people")
uce("entrance")
***
mother ya chi
(也次)
Ana *** ya("home")
ti("bosom")
ɸaɸa("mother")/oya("parent")
haha, oya *** *** 어ㅿㅣ
əzi
어미əmi
아매,에마 ame,ema(north dialect)
*** eniyen a ja ***
baby gu(仇)
gιəu-sie / kus / kyus
(仇斯)
koto("son"匈奴語)
kız ("girl; daughter")
O'gul
*** ko1("baby") kodomo("baby, child") *** *** *** koma(童)
koma-(小-)
*** omo jui("kid") kuŋa ("child")
writing
literature
(文)
kιən-ʃιi/kɯl
(斤尸)
*** *** kak-("to write")
kuk-/*kuru-("to form,to bind")
kak-
kukur-/kurum-
*** *** kɯl kɯl *** herse hergen ***
jade kusi
ko-ʃie
(古斯)
*** gas kusiro2("bracelet") kuʃiro *** *** kusɯl ("jewel") *** *** γun gu ***
cool wind, clear wind ʃa-nιet-ιi
(沙熱伊)
*** *** same-("to cool")
-ti("wind")
same-
-ʨi
*** *** sanʌl("cool")
-i("-wind")
sənɯl("cool") *** *** *** ***
hole (孔) dzei-ts‘ii/tsei-ts‘ii
(斉次/濟次)
*** *** tʃuk-("be off one's guard, to show through")
tʃuki("chink, gap, vulnerable point")
suki *** *** *** t’ul-(透), tɯm(隙) *** *** *** ***
hole (穴) kap
(甲)
kap-pii
(甲比)
qapca("gorge, ravine"), qapi¨γ("Gate") *** kapi1>kaɸi1("hole, gorge, narrow valley") kubomi ("hole") *** *** *** kul (穴) *** *** *** ***
three mir/mil
(密)
siet
(悉)
s^ïei
(史)
bis(5) gurav mi1("3") mi *** mil sei/səih 셋 sʰet̚ *** ilan ilan ***
five uc/ütsi/uci/üc/uca/uchha
(于次,弓次)
üç(3) tabun itu("5") iʦu *** *** tasul (打戌) tasət
닷 tah
dügün sunja sunja ***
seven nan-・ιən
nanin
(難隠)
nanən/nanun
Yeti *** nana("7") nana *** *** (n)ìlgɯp(一急) (n)ìlgúp nadan nadan nadan ***
ten tək/duk
(德)
on
toquz(9)
arav to2/to2wo("10") *** *** *** yəl(10)
on(100)
chɯmun(1000)
juwa juwan juwan ʒuwan
hard ma
(馬)
*** *** ma- ("truly, really") ma- *** *** modir- mōjir- ("harsh; severe; cruel") *** manga("hard") maŋga("hard") maŋa
high dat/§ap/tar
(達)
*** *** taka-/daka-("high") taka-/daka *** *** *** tarak- ("high")
tarak ("loft")
*** *** den ("high")
dekde- ("to rise")
***
rough kuət-・ιəi
(骨衣)
*** *** kata-("tough,firm") katai("tough,stiff") *** ka¨cʰɔ¨l kəcʰɯl- (荒) *** *** *** kata-("to become hard, to become rough") ***
round (圓)

toŋ-pιuəi
(冬非)
*** *** tubura("round") tsubura *** *** tuŋgɯl-(圓) tuŋgɯl-(圓} *** *** torho-("to roll,to circle") ***
new ʃιəu/*su
(首)
*** *** zu("new, present, developing,a gleam")
su-("fresh")
sa-("young")
su- *** say say (새) *** iche ice ***
deep bιuk-sie
(伏斯)
puk
(伏)
*** *** puka-si>ɸuka-si("deep") ɸuka-i *** *** kiph u˙n kiph-
puk ("deeply, completely, fully")
*** *** *** ***
flat, level,shallow biri
(比里)
pii-lιεt
(比烈)
biri *** pi1ra->ɸi1ra-("flat,level")
pisi
hirata-
hiʃi
*** *** *** pʌl *** *** ba("field, district")
pile-("to confirm, to criticize")
tehere-("to flat, to be equal")
***
wide (廣) nərə-si, ə-si
(於斯)
*** osy/esy 阿斯(寬大:gererous, tolerant)
nalai
naras-u("roll,to level off")
os-u("transcend, surpass")
e-si("right,wide,noble,enough")
naras-u("to level off")
os-u("to transcend, to press, to push")
*** *** 어위 (< *어쉬) nəlb 넓- (廣)
nəgɯrə (寬)
ədzi (仁, 寬)
*** očo 我撮(寬) ončo(廣:wast) ***
bent (曲) kubəl (屈火) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** kub- (曲-), kubɯl (曲) *** *** ***
black kəmər/kəmhək(今勿) Qara *** kuro1("black") kuro *** *** kəm-/검- 검 kʌm *** *** kara ***
white ʃιi-lap
(尸臘)
nə γei
(奈兮)
Aq *** sira("white")
siram- ("to become white")
ʃiro
ʃiram-
*** *** ʃje-("to become white")
hʌy-(白)
hʌy-
hin
hayan
nun (雪)
*** *** šara-("to become white")
šeyen("white")
šanggiyan("white")
***
red s^a-bιuk/sa(i)puk
(沙伏)
s^a-pιuəi-kιən/sa(i)pikon
沙非斤
sapi
Qyzyl *hulaɣan > ulaan so2po>so2ɸo("red") soho supi(赤鳥) sapi(泗沘) sitpɯk(赤) 붉은pulgɯn
시뻘건sippəlgən("deep red")
*** *** fulgiyan ***
yellow kuət
(骨)
kweyru
*** *** ki2-~ kú-("yellow") ki(iro) *** *** *** *** *** *** suwayan ***
blue (靑) sal
sat
(薩)
*** *** so1ra("sky")
sumi1re("violet")
sora-iro
sumire-iro
*** səri 昔里
(靑)
*** *** *** *** ***
green (綠) bιuʌt-lιək
(伐力)
puruk
*** *** mido("green")
pa>ɸa("leaf")
tura/tuta("vine")
midori
ha
ʦuru/ʦuta
*** *** phɯrɯn ("green, blue") phurɯn ("green, blue")
pharan ("blue")
*** *** *** ***
to meet pʌk/*pak
(伯)
bak-("to see, to look; to find") *** pak->ɸak->*wakar-(分:"to separate")
mak-("to obtain,to prepare,to make")
wakar-(判,解:"to judge, to understand")
mōker-
*** *** poizʌp- ("to humbly show oneself, to meet (an honored person)") po-("to see, to look")/ poyp-("to have an audience with, to meet (an honored person)") *** baka- ("to look for, to seek, to search") baha-("to get, to obtain") baka-("to find")
to swing pu
(釜)
*** *** pur->ɸur-("to swing,to shake") ɸu- *** *** *** pudɯl-("tremble, shake") *** *** *** ***
to enter ・ιi/*i
(伊)
*** ire-
(to come)
ir-("to enter") ir- *** *** ip(口)/ip(門戸) ir-(to arrive; to come)
ip
i-(入) *** ibe-("to get forward") ***
to get (取) toŋ
(冬)
*** *** tor-("to take, to get") to- *** *** *** tɯl-("to take, to hold") *** *** *** ***

Notes

Further reading

  • Beckwith, C. I. (2004). Koguryo, the language of Japan's continental relatives: an introduction to the historical-comparative study of the Japanese Koguryoic languages with a preliminary description of Archaic northeastern Middle Chinese. Brill's Japanese studies library, v. 21. Boston: Brill. ISBN 9004139494
  • Beckwith (2006). "Methodological Observations on Some Recent Studies of the Early Ethnolinguistic History of Korea and Vicinity." Altai Hakpo 2006, 16: 199-234.
  • Beckwith (2006). "The Ethnolinguistic History of the Early Korean Peninsula Region: Japanese-Koguryoic and Other Languages in the Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla Kingdoms." Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies, 2006, Vol. 2-2: 34-64.
  • Beckwith (2007): Koguryo, the Language of Japan's Continental Relatives: An Introduction to the Historical-Comparative Study of the Japanese-Koguryoic Languages, with a Preliminary Description of Archaic Northeastern Middle Chinese. Brill Academic Publishers, 2004. ISBN 90-04-13949-4. Second edition, 2007. ISBN 90-04-16025-5
  • http://thomaspellard.ryukyu.googlepages.com/reviewKoguryro.pdf

See also

External links

Japanese

Korean

English

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