Entering Parliament (1833) as a Tory, he became a protégé of Sir Robert Peel, who made him undersecretary for war and the colonies (1835). In Peel's second ministry, he became vice president (1841) and president (1843) of the Board of Trade, introducing the first government regulation of the railroads, and then (1845) colonial secretary. A supporter of free trade, he resigned (1846) with Peel in the party split that followed repeal of the corn laws and gradually aligned himself more and more with the Liberals. As chancellor of the exchequer (1852-55, 1859-66), he eloquently proposed and secured measures for economic retrenchment and free trade. He also espoused the cause of parliamentary reform (see Reform Acts).
Gladstone served as prime minister four times (1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, and 1892-94). In his first ministry the Church of Ireland was disestablished (1869) to free Roman Catholics from the necessity of paying tithes to support the Anglican church, and an Irish land act was passed (see Irish Land Question) to protect the peasantry. He achieved important reforms—competitive admission to the civil service, the vote by secret ballot, abolition of the sale of commissions in the army, educational expansion, and court reorganization. Conservative reaction to reforms and a weak foreign policy defeated him in 1874.
In 1876, Gladstone published a pamphlet, Bulgarian Horrors and the Questions of the East, attacking the Disraeli government for its indifference to the brutal repression by the Turks of the Bulgarian rebellion. His renewed attack on Disraeli's pro-Turkish and generally aggressively imperialist policies in the Midlothian campaign of 1879-80 brought the Liberals back to power in 1880. During Gladstone's second ministry, a more effective Irish land act was passed (1881), and two parliamentary reform bills (1884, 1885) further extended the franchise and redistributed the seats in the House of Commons. The army's failure to relieve Charles George Gordon at Khartoum helped to bring this ministry to an end (1885).
Gladstone's advocacy of Home Rule for Ireland was a notable recognition of Irish demands, but wrecked his third ministry (1886) after a few months. Many anti-Home Rule Liberals allied themselves with the Conservatives, and the slow decline of the Liberal party may be traced from this date. Gladstone also split with the Irish leader Charles Stewart Parnell because of the divorce case in which Parnell was involved. Gladstone's last ministry followed the election of 1892 and continued the fight for Irish Home Rule. He retired in 1894 after the House of Lords defeated (1893) his bill.
Many of Gladstone's speeches and letters have been collected. See biographies by J. Morley (3 vol., 1903, repr. 1968), P. Stansky (1981), R. Shannon (1984), H. C. Matthew (1989), and R. Jenkins (1997).
Gladstone is a city located in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 11,438. The 2007 estimate is 12,200 residents. Gladstone is a four square mile (10 km²) suburban community twelve miles (19 km) south of Portland at the confluence of the Clackamas River and the Willamette River. To the south, across the Clackamas, is Oregon City, across the Willamette is West Linn, to the north is Milwaukie. In the higher areas one can easily see Mount Hood in the distance to the northeast, and in some places Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens can also be seen.
When Oregon City was founded and people began moving to the area, they petitioned their governments to remove the local aboriginals from the land, so that European settlers could have land to farm and live on. The government responded by rounding up the Indians and forcing them to leave their lands for a reservation. With the natives removed from the scene, the Gladstone area was ripe for settling. Today the only visible remains of the native presence is a large tree called "The Pow Wow Tree." An Indian burial ground near that area is now covered over by a street and a number of houses.
The Pow-Wow maple tree marked the place where the different Indian tribes, mainly Clackamas and Multnomahs, met to make trading agreements, settle community affairs, and conduct wedding ceremonies. The tree still stands on Clackamas Boulevard. Adjacent to the Pow-Wow tree was an Indian racetrack that Peter Rinearson later used as an exercise and training ground for the racehorses he bred. In 1861, it was used as a parade ring for the first State Fair held on the Rinearson property, with the Pow-Wow tree marking the entrance.
Linn City was settled in the 1840s by Robert Moore who built four flour and lumber mills along the bank of the Willamette. Warehouses, homes, and mills were added until 1857 when a fire destroyed several of the buildings. Efforts at rebuilding the small town ceased when a flood came later that year and wiped out the rest of the buildings.
There is also a small park named after him, located at the same place one of the Indian tribes made its camp.
Cross chose the name "Gladstone" because he admired Prime Minister William E. Gladstone of England.
Inside the city, the main streets are Portland Avenue, which runs from Gladstone High School, through the middle of Old Gladstone, to the river; Webster, which runs along the eastern edge of Old Gladstone from the freeway and the river north into the hills; and Oatfield Road, which winds its way through the hills and drops down into Milwaukie.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles (6.5 km²), of which, 2.5 square miles (6.4 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (1.98%) is water.
The city can be divided into four categories. The old section is laid out on a grid of streets bordered by the Clackamas on the south, McLoughlin Boulevard on the west, Webster on the east, and the foothills to the north. The river section of city is the strip of land between McLoughlin and the Willamette River. On the east side of city is a large park owned by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The fourth section of city is the remaining hilly area north of the old section.
There were 4,246 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,368, and the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $38,619 versus $28,300 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,388. About 6.6% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.