Gibbs

Gibbs

[gibz]
Gibbs, James, 1682-1754, English architect, b. Scotland, studied in Rome under Carlo Fontana. Returning to England in 1709, he was appointed a member of the commission authorized to build 50 churches in London. Only 10 of these were completed; they include two of Gibbs's most distinguished works, St. Mary-le-Strand (1714-17) and St. Martin-in-the-Fields (1721-26); the latter formed a basic inspiration for many of the steepled churches of the colonial period in America. Gibbs did considerable work for the universities, including the circular Radcliffe Camera at Oxford (1739-49), considered his finest design, and the Senate House at Cambridge, where from 1722 onward he was constantly employed. He designed also many town and country houses. His works have the distinction characteristic of the Georgian period and of the work of Sir Christopher Wren, by whom he was chiefly influenced. He wrote a Book of Architecture (1728, repr. 1968) and Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture (1732).

See study by B. Little (1955).

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 1839-1903, American mathematical physicist, b. New Haven, Conn., grad. Yale, 1858. He studied abroad and was professor of mathematical physics at Yale from 1871. His great contributions to physical chemistry and thermodynamics have had a profound effect on industry, notably in the production of ammonia. He formulated the concept of chemical potential. In mathematics he wrote on quaternions and was influential in developing vector analysis. His work in statistical mechanics was especially important. Gibbs also contributed to crystallography, the determination of planetary and comet orbits, and electromagnetic theory. James Clerk Maxwell was one of the first European scientists to recognize Gibbs as a theoretical physicist of international stature. Gibbs was also interested in the practical side of science; his doctorate was the first granted by Yale for an engineering thesis, and he received a patent (1866) for an improved type of railroad brake. His Scientific Papers appeared in 1906 (repr. 1961) and his Collected Works in 1928.
Gibbs, Sir Philip, 1877-1962, English journalist and author. As a result of his distinguished service in World War I as a front-line correspondent for the Daily Chronicle (London) he was knighted in 1920. Among his many novels are The Street of Adventure (1909), The Middle of the Road (1922), and This Nettle Danger (1939). He also wrote historical studies, astute commentaries on world events, and several autobiographical works, including The Pageant of the Years (1946).

(born Oct. 31, 1863, near Marietta, Ga., U.S.—died Feb. 1, 1941, Washington, D.C.) U.S. public official. In 1892 he moved to New York, where he organized the Hudson and Manhattan Railway companies (later consolidated), which built tunnels under the Hudson River. A prominent supporter of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign, he was appointed secretary of the treasury by Wilson in 1913; he married Wilson's daughter in 1914. During World War I he directed fund-raising drives that yielded $18 billion for the war effort. He was later director general of U.S. railroads (1917–19) and U.S. senator from California (1933–38).

Learn more about McAdoo, William G(ibbs) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 31, 1863, near Marietta, Ga., U.S.—died Feb. 1, 1941, Washington, D.C.) U.S. public official. In 1892 he moved to New York, where he organized the Hudson and Manhattan Railway companies (later consolidated), which built tunnels under the Hudson River. A prominent supporter of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign, he was appointed secretary of the treasury by Wilson in 1913; he married Wilson's daughter in 1914. During World War I he directed fund-raising drives that yielded $18 billion for the war effort. He was later director general of U.S. railroads (1917–19) and U.S. senator from California (1933–38).

Learn more about McAdoo, William G(ibbs) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , Feb. 11, 1839, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died April 28, 1903, New Haven) U.S. theoretical physicist and chemist. He became the first person to earn an engineering doctorate from Yale University, where he taught from 1871 until his death. He began his career in engineering but turned to theory, analyzing the equilibrium of James Watt's steam-engine governor. His major works were on fluid thermodynamics and the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, and he developed statistical mechanics. Gibbs was the first to expound with mathematical rigour the “relation between chemical, electrical, and thermal energy and capacity for work.” Though little of his work was appreciated during his lifetime, his application of thermodynamic theory to chemical reactions converted much of physical chemistry from an empirical to a deductive science, and he is regarded as one of the greatest U.S. scientists of the 19th century.

Learn more about Gibbs, J(osiah) Willard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , Feb. 11, 1839, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died April 28, 1903, New Haven) U.S. theoretical physicist and chemist. He became the first person to earn an engineering doctorate from Yale University, where he taught from 1871 until his death. He began his career in engineering but turned to theory, analyzing the equilibrium of James Watt's steam-engine governor. His major works were on fluid thermodynamics and the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, and he developed statistical mechanics. Gibbs was the first to expound with mathematical rigour the “relation between chemical, electrical, and thermal energy and capacity for work.” Though little of his work was appreciated during his lifetime, his application of thermodynamic theory to chemical reactions converted much of physical chemistry from an empirical to a deductive science, and he is regarded as one of the greatest U.S. scientists of the 19th century.

Learn more about Gibbs, J(osiah) Willard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Gibbs is a village in Wilson Township, Adair County, Missouri, United States. The population was 100 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Kirksville Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Gibbs is located at (40.097231, -92.417234). According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.2 square miles (0.6 km²), all of it land.

History

The town of Gibbs was an outgrowth of the Santa Fe Railroad, established in 1886 when the rail lines passed through southeastern Adair County. It was named for the family on whose land the railroad station was built. At the time of Gibbs' incorporation in 1894, it was anticipated that the town might become the county's main rail shipping point for the Santa Fe. A livestock holding corral was constructed early on, however it appears only the surrounding farms of Wilson Township ever utilized it to any degree. The merchants and businesses of Kirksville, the county's major trading hub, instead chose to use La Plata, on the Macon-Adair County border, as their major shipping and passenger service outlet on the Santa Fe. For the latter years of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th, Gibbs was a thriving community depite the snub from Kirksville. A US Post Office was established in 1887, and several businesses could be found including a barber shop, general merchants, blacksmith, lumberyard, and grain elevator. The Bank Of Gibbs was founded in 1898. However, like so many other rural financial institutions, it fell victim to the Great Depression banking crisis and closed in 1933. For a time at the turn-of-the-century Gibbs could even boast of its own newspaper, one with the unique name of the Gibbs Telegraph. The community suffered other hard blows when the Santa Fe rail depot was closed in the 1960's and the two-room school was consolidated into the Brashear (Adair County R-2) school system. A 2007 rental dispute between the US Postal Service and the buildings owners has led to the closing, at least temporarily, of the Gibbs post office.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 100 people, 34 households, and 28 families residing in the village. The population density was 401.2 people per square mile (154.4/km²). There were 42 housing units at an average density of 168.5/sq mi (64.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 97.00% White, and 3.00% from two or more races.

There were 34 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.6% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.29.

In the village the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 112.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.5 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $23,611, and the median income for a family was $23,889. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $13,750 for females. The per capita income for the village was $9,368. There were 20.0% of families and 37.1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 70.0% of under eighteens and 44.4% of those over 64.

References

External links

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