George was born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, to the family of Prince Alexander Bagration of Mukhrani and Princess Maria née Golovatchev. He was educated at the Page Corps. He married, in 1908, Princess Helena, née Zlotnicki (1886-1979), whose Georgian mother Princess Mariam Eristavi, was a remote descendant of the 18th-century Georgian king Erekle II.
George Bagration served as a marshal of the Council of Nobility of Dusheti in Georgia from 1916 to 1917. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, he hailed independent Georgia and fought against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. George chose to stay in Georgia rather than follow his wife and children in exile following the Sovietization of the country in 1921. He was, nevertheless, arrested by the Soviet authorities in 1930, but was soon released through the efforts of the Russian writer Maxim Gorky. George Bagration left the Soviet Union and joined his family in their European exile. He finally settled in Spain in 1944. His son, Irakli, was energetically involved in Georgian political émigré activities. One of his daughters, Leonida, married Vladimir Cyrillovich Romanov, Pretender to the Russian throne; the other, Maria, homesick, returned to Soviet Georgia, but was arrested in 1948 and had to spend eight years in exile in Magadan. She died in Tbilisi in 1992.
George Bagration of Mukhrani died in Madrid, Spain, in 1957. His remains was brought back to Georgia by his grandson Jorge de Bagration in 1995 and interred at the Cathedral of Living Pillar at Mtskheta.