Definitions

Geographica

Geographica

The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά, Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is a 17-volume encyclopedia of geographical knowledge written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman empire of Greek and Georgian descent. Work can have begun on it no earlier than 20 BC. A first edition was published in 7 BC followed by a gap, resumption of work and a final edition no later than 23 AD in the last year of Strabo's life. Strabo probably worked on his Geography and now missing History concurrently, as the Geography contains a considerable amount of historical data. Except for parts of Book 7, it has come down to us complete.

Name

Strabo refers to his Geography within it by several names:

  • geōgraphia, "description of the earth
  • chōrographia, "description of the land"
  • periēgēsis, "an outline
  • periodos gēs, "circuit of the earth
  • periodeia tēs chōrās, "circuit of the land

Apart from the "outline", two words recur, "earth" and "country." Something of a theorist, Strabo explains what he means by Geography and Chorography:

It is the sea more than anything else that defines the contours of the land (geōgraphei) and gives it its shape, by forming gulfs, deep seas, straits and likewise isthmuses, peninsulas, and promontories; but both the rivers and the mountains assist the seas herein. It is through such natural features that we gain a clear conception of continents, nations, favourable positions of cities and all the other diversified details with which our geographical map (chorographikos pinax) is filled.
From this description it is clear that by geography Strabo means ancient physical geography and by chorography, political geography. The two are combined in this work, which makes a "circuit of the earth" detailing the physical and political features. Strabo often uses the adjective geōgraphika with reference to the works of others and to geography in general, but not of his own work. In the Middle Ages it became the standard name used of his work.

Date

The date of Geographica is a large topic, perhaps because Strabo worked on it along with his History for most of his adult life. He traveled extensively, undoubtedly gathering notes, and made extended visits to Rome and Alexandria, where he is sure to have spent time in the famous library taking notes from his sources.

Strabo visited Rome in 44 BC at age 19 or 20 apparently for purposes of education. He studied under various persons, including Tyrannion, a captive educated Greek and private tutor, who instructed Cicero's two sons. Says Sterrett:

Tyrannion was also a distinguished geographer, and he may have guided Strabo into the paths of geographical study.
If one presumes that Strabo acquired the motivation for writing geography during his education, the latter must have been complete by the time of his next visit to Rome in 35 BC at 29 years old. He may have been gathering notes but the earliest indication that he must have been preparing them is his extended visit to Alexandria 25-20 BC. In 20 he was 44 years old. His "numerous excerpts" from "the works of his predecessors" are most likely to have been noted at the library there. Whether these hypothetical notes first found their way into his history and then into his geography or were simply ported along as notes remains unknown.

Most of the events of the life of Augustus mentioned by Strabo occurred 31-7 BC with a gap 6 BC - 14 AD, which can be interpreted as an interval after first publication in 7 BC. Then in 19 AD a specific reference dates a passage: he said that the Carni and Norici had been at peace since they were "stopped ... from their riotous incursions ...." by Drusus 33 years ago, which was 15 BC, dating the passage 19 AD. The latest event mentioned is the death of Juba at no later than 23 AD, when Strabo was in his 80's. These events can be interpreted as a second edition unless he saved all his notes and wrote the book entirely after the age of 80.

Composition

Strabo is his own best expounder of his principles of composition:
In short, this book of mine should be ... useful alike to the statesman and to the public at large - as was my work on History. ... And so, after I had written my Historical Sketches ... I determined to write the present treatise also; for this work is based on the same plan, and is addressed to the same class of readers, and particularly to men of exalted stations in life. ... in this work also I must leave untouched what is petty and inconspicuous, and devote my attention to what is noble and great, and to what contains the practically useful, or memorable, or entertaining. ... For it, too, is a colossal work, in that it deals with the facts about large things only, and wholes ....

Subject matter

An outline of the encyclopedia follows, with links to the appropriate Wikipedia article.

Book 1

Chapter 1

Book Section Description
1 1 Geography is a branch of philosophy.
2 Homer is the founder of geography.
3 The Ocean.
4 The Elysian Plain.
5 The Isles of the Blessed.
6 The Aethiopians, Definition of the Arctic Circle
7-9 Tides of the Ocean. Earth is an island.
10 The Mediterranean, the land of the Cimmerians, the Ister.
11 Anaximander and Hecataeus.
12 Hipparchus and the climata.
13 The antipodes.
14-19 The ecumene. Geography requires encyclopedic knowledge of celestial, terrestrial and maritime features as well as natural history and mathematics and is of strategic interest.
20 Earth is a sphere with surface curved by the law of gravity, that bodies move to the center.
21 Knowledge of geometry is required to understand geography.
22-23 The purpose and plan of the encyclopedia.

Chapter 2

Book Section Description
1 1-40 ...

Chapter 3

Book Section Description
1 1-23 ...

Chapter 4

Book Section Description
1 1-9 ...

Book 2

Chapter 1

Book Section Description
2 1-41 ...

Chapter 2

Book Section Description
2 1-3 ...

Chapter 3

Book Section Description
2 1-8 ...

Chapter 4

Book Section Description
2 1-8 ...

Chapter 5

Book Section Description
2 1-43 ...

Book 3

Book 4

Book 5

Book 6

Book 7

Chapter 1

Book Section Description
1 1 Overview of the lands to be covered in the rest of the text.
2 German people.
3 Geography of Germania, list of Germanic tribes.
4 Roman conflicts with Germans.
5 The Hercynian Forest, the Ister river.

Chapter 2

Book Section Description
1 1 Correcting false tales of the Cimbri.
2 Cimbri raids.
3 Cimbri divination.
4 Lack of knowledge of areas beyond Germany.

Chapter 3

Book Section Description
1 1 Southern Germania, myths about distant regions.
2 The Mysians.
3 Mysian culture and religion.
4 Getae. Different views of their culture.
5 Zalmoxis, his travels, and his influence on the Mysians.
6 Errors in other Greek accounts of Mysia.
7-10 The Scythians.
11-12 The Getae.
13-19 ....

Chapter 4

Book Section Description
1 1-40 ...

Chapter 5

Book Section Description
1 1-40 ...

Chapter 6

Book Section Description
1 1-40 ...

Chapter 7

Book Section Description
1 1-40 ...

Book 8

Book 9

Book 10

Book 11

Book 12

Book 13

Book 14

Book 15

Book 16

Book 17

Chapter 1

Book Section Description
17 1-2 Eratosthenes on the Nile and surrounding people.
3 The Nile in Ethiopia. The organization of Egypt, nomes, classes, comments on the Labyrinth.
4 The Nile in the Nile Delta.
5 Source of the Nile. Greek writers about the Nile. Definition of the name Aegypt.
6 Harbours of Alexandria, Pharos Island. Julius Caesar. Founding of the city by Alexander the Great.
7 Importance of Alexandria. Lake Mareotis.
8 Details about Alexandria. Ptolemy I Soter steals Alexanders body. Perdiccas is sleighed. Roxana departes for Macedonia.
9 Lighthouse of Alexandria. Other temples and buildings, Lochias (promontory), Royal palace, Antirrhodos (island), Theatre, Poseidium, Emporium, Timonium, Caesarium, Heptastadium.
10 More details about Alexandria. More buildings and structures. The Sarapium. Emperor Augustus defeats Mark Antony.
11 The Ptolemaic dynasty.
12-13 Egypt as a Roman province. Roman Legions. Polybius' visit to Alexandria.
14 Coastal cities from Cyrenaica to Alexandria. About wine.
15 Papyrus, Cyperus and Cyperus papyrus in the Deltaic marshes and lakes.
16-17 Road to Canopus. Temple of Sarapis.
18 Nile mounts in the Delta, Canopic (Canopus), Bolbitine (Rosetta), Sebennytic (Buto), Phantnitic (Damietta), Mendesian (Mendes), Tanitic (Tanis) and Pelusiac (Pelusium).
19-21 Interior of the mouth. Expulsion of foreigners. Difficult in entering Egypt. Cities.
22-53 ...

Chapter 2

Book Section Description
17 1-5 ...

Chapter 3

Book Section Description
17 1-25 ...

Publications

Some thirty manuscripts of Geographika or parts of it have survived, almost all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were probably copied out ca AD 100‑300. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002, appearing at a rate of about a volume a year.

Notes

Bibliography

Editions

  • Kramer, Gustav, ed., Strabonis Geographica, 3 vols, containing Books 1-17. Berlin: Friedericus Nicolaus, 1844-52.
  • Strabo; Horace Leonard Jones (Editor and Translator), John Robert Sitlington Sterrett (Translator, Introduction) (1917-1932). The Loeb Classical Library: The Geography of Strabo: in Eight Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England: Harvard University Press; William Heinemann LTD. ISBN 0-674-99055-2. Contains Books 1-17, Greek on the left page, English on the right. Sterrett translated Books I and II and wrote the introduction before dying in 1915. Jones changed Sterrett's style from free to more literal and finished the translation. The Introduction contains a major bibliography on all aspects of Strabo and a definitive presentation of the manuscripts and editions up until 1917.

See also

External links

The text of Strabo online

  • English text.
  • Strabo; H.L. Jones (Editor) The Geography of Strabo. The Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.. English text.
  • Strabo; H.C. Hamilton & W. Falconer (Editors) Strabo, Geography. The Perseus Project. Tufts University. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.. English text.
  • Strabo; A. Meineke (Editor) Geographica. The Perseus Project. Tufts University. . The Greek and Greek transliterated texts.

Secondary material

Search another word or see Geographicaon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;