Gecekondu (plural Gecekondular) is a Turkish word meaning a house put up quickly without proper permissions, a * squatter's house, and by extension a shanty, a shack. Gecekondu bölgesi is a neighborhood made of those gecekondular.
means "night" and kondu
means "suddenly placed' (from the verb kondurmak, suddenly to place); thus the term gecekondu
comes to mean "placed (built) overnight". And bölge
means a "zone", "district" or even "region", so a gecekondu bölgesi
is a "suddenly built-up shanty-neighborhood
In common usage, it refers to the low cost apartment buildings or houses that were constructed in a very short time by people migrating from rural areas to the outskirts of the large cities. Robert Neuwirth
writes in his book Shadow Cities
that these squatters
are exploiting a legal loophole which states that if one starts building after dusk and moves into a completed house before dawn the same day without having being noticed by the authorities, then the next day the authorities are not permitted to tear the building down but instead must begin a legal proceeding in court (and thus it is more likely one can stay). Such buildings may be constructed without going through the necessary procedures required for construction, such as acquiring building permits, and can be very densely populated. Neuwirth states that "half the residents of Istanbul - perhaps six million people - dwell in gecekondu homes".
The gecekondu phenomenon is directly linked with the problems of unemployment and poverty in the rural areas of Turkey, especially in the east of the country. In many instances entire villages have migrated to the outskirts of the large industrialized cities in order to seek a better standard of living.
At present, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds developed by the government's Housing Development Administration (TOKI).