Gaibandha has a total area of 2179.27 square kilometres. It has boundaries with the Kurigram and Rangpur to the north, Bogra District to the south, Dinajpur and Rangpur districts to the west, and Jamalpur and Kurigram districts, and the Brahmaputra River to the east.
Gaibandha District is divided into 7 upazilas/thanas, which are further divided into 82 union parishads, and 1244 villages. The upazilas/thanas of the district are Fulchhari, Gaibandha sadar, Gobindaganj, Palashbari, Sadullapur, Sughatta, and Sundarganj. It also has 3 municipalities, which have a total of 18 wards and 56 mahallas. The municipalities are Gaibandha Sadar, Gobindaganj and Sundarganj.
Archaeological heritage and relics in this district include Vardhan Kuthi, Gobindaganj (17th century), house of Naldanga Zamindar along with its Shiva Linga made of black basalt, Vrisa Mandir of white stone and a large pond, Mosque of Shah Sultan Gazi at Mirer Bagan (1308), house of Bamandanga Zamindar, Mosque at Jamalpur, large pond at Faridpur, Masta Mosque at Gobindaganj.
Historical events This region was a part of the Mourya, Pala, Gupta and Kamarupa kingdoms at different times. Movement was held in 1783 in this district against collection of excess taxes. Anti British movement (1921) and tebhaga movement (1946) were initiated in the district. Fayezuddin and Puti Sheikh were killed by Police firing in 1949 in a movement to stop collection of tolls at hats and bazars. A Peasant Convention was held at Fulchhari in 1956 under the leadership of maulana abdul hamid khan bhasani.