was a 20th century philosophy which ecompassed painting
and even gastronomy
. Although a nascent Futurism can be seen surfacing throughout the very early years of the twentieth century, the 1907 essay Entwurf einer neuen Ästhetik der Tonkunst
(Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music) by the Italian composer Ferruccio Busoni
is the earliest call from a mainstream composer for a futurist aesthetic in its calls for freedom from equal temperament and was later attacked as dangerous futurism. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
produced a manifesto
of the philosophy in his Manifesto of Futurism
. Luigi Russolo
(1885-1947), an Italian painter, wrote his manifesto The Art of Noises
in 1913. In this manifesto Russolo divided a new timbre of sound for the orchestra, "noise-sound," into 6 different "families of noise"
- Roars, Thunderings, Explosions, Hissing roars, Bangs, Booms
- Whistling, Hissing, Puffing
- Whispers, Murmurs, Mumbling, Muttering, Gurgling
- Screeching, Creaking, Rustling, Humming, Crackling, Rubbing
- Noises obtained by beating on metals, woods, skins, stones, pottery, etc.
- Voices of animals and people, Shouts, Screams, Shrieks, Wails, Hoots, Howls, Death rattles, Sobs
With the Russolo's invention of the new instruments of orchestra, the "intonarumori"; he and Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music in 1914. The program of "four networks of noises" with the following titles:
- Awakening of Capital.
- Meeting of cars and aeroplanes
- Dining on the terrace of the Casino and
- Skirmish in the oasis.