French Academy

French Academy

French Academy (L'Académie française), learned society of France. It is one of the five societies of the Institut de France.

Development

The origins of the academy were in a coterie of literary men who met informally in Paris in the early 1630s to discuss rhetoric and criticism. Recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, the academy received the royal letters patent in 1635 (registered by the Parlement of Paris in 1637). Its aims included chiefly the governance of French literary effort, grammar, orthography, and rhetoric. The membership was soon fixed at 40 (called often, because of their former motto, "the forty immortals") and was established as self-perpetuating, with a veto of elections reserved to the official protecteur (or patron), later to the state. The first notable act of the society was the criticism of the Cid of Pierre Corneille.

After Richelieu's death (1642) the patronate went (1643) to Pierre Séguier, the chancellor; on his death (1672), King Louis XIV assumed the position of protecteur, which remained ever after a prerogative of the head of the French state. The suppression of the academies in 1793 ended the French Academy; it reappeared in the second class of Napoleon's Institut (1803), and the old name and organization were "restored" in the first division of the Institut of 1816.

The academy has often been accused of literary conservatism, owing to the failure of certain writers to attain membership; the most prominent of these are perhaps Molière, Marquis de La Rochefoucauld, Duc de Saint-Simon, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Honoré de Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, Stendhal, Émile Zola, and Marcel Proust. But not all omissions from the academy roster are attributable to literary criteria, for personal respectability and loyalty to the existing state have always been conditions of membership. The membership of the academy has traditionally included eminent Frenchmen outside the field of literature; some of its members come from France's senior clergy to mark the role of Roman Catholicism in French culture. Today the academy's membership includes women and people of other nationalities who write in French.

Functions

The work of the French Academy has chiefly consisted of the preparation and revision of a dictionary (1st ed. 1694, 9th ed. 1992-) and of a grammar. The very conservative attitude of these books toward orthography, new words, and grammatical development has led to much criticism. The academy, however, has never claimed to legislate but simply to record forms; legislation on orthography and grammar was made a function of the minister of public instruction during the Third Republic. The awarding of literary prizes has also been an important function of the French Academy, and in the 19th cent. its nonpartisanship encouraged the general recognition of the academy as a suitable trustee for the distribution of grants and prizes for courage and civic virtue.

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences.

History

The Academy of Sciences owes its origin to Colbert's plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on December 22, 1666 in the King's library, and thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there. The first 30 years of the Academy's existence were relatively informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution.

On January 20, 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules. The Academy received the name of Royal Academy of Sciences and was installed in the Louvre in Paris. On August 8, 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. On August 22, 1795, a National Institute of Sciences and Arts was put in place, bringing together the old academies of the sciences, literature and arts, among them the Académie française and the Académie des sciences. Almost all the old members of the previously abolished Académie were formally re-elected and retook their ancient seats. Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists: in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte was elected a member of the Academy and three year later later president in connection with his Egyptian expedition, which had a scientific component. In 1816, the again renamed Royal Academy of Sciences became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France; the head of State became its patron. In the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction. The Academy proceedings were published under the name "Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences" (1835-1965). The publications can be found on site of the French National Library in pdf format.

The Academy today

Today the Academy is one of five academies comprising the Institut de France. Its members are elected for life. Currently there are 150 full members, 300 corresponding members, and 120 foreign associates. They are divided into two scientific groups: the Mathematical and Physical sciences and their applications and the Chemical, Biological, Geological and Medical sciences and their applications.

Permanent Secretaries

Mathematical Sciences

Physical Sciences

Presidents

Treasurers

Members: past and current

For the associated category, see Members of the French Academy of Sciences
A : Jacques d'Allonville ~ Antoine d'Abbadie d'Arrast ~ Anatole Abragam ~ Jean le Rond d'Alembert ~ Claude Allègre ~ Christian Amatore ~ Sebastian Amigorena ~Jean-Claude André ~ Jacques Angelier ~ Vladimir Arnol'd ~ Jacques Arsac ~ Philippe Ascher ~ Alain Aspect ~ Ivan Assenmacher ~ Sir Michael Atiyah ~ Thierry Aubin ~ Jean Aubouin ~ Pierre Auger

B : Jean-François Bach ~ George Backus ~ Roger Balian ~ John Ball ~ Gilbert Ballet ~ David Baltimore ~ Neil Bartlett ~ Jean-Marie Basset ~ Étienne-Émile Baulieu ~ Pierre Baux ~ Klaus Bechgaard ~ Alim-Louis Benabid ~ Christophe Benoist ~ Alain Benoît ~ Henri Benoît ~ Alain Bensoussan ~ Pierre Benveniste ~ Seymour Benzer ~ Paul Berg ~ André Berger ~ Marcel Berger ~ Sune Bergström ~ Jean Bernard ~ Claude Berrou ~ Gérard Berry ~ Erwin Félix Lewy-Bertaut ~ Alain Berthoz ~ Guy Bertrand ~ Joseph Bertrand ~ Albert Bijaoui ~ Jean-Paul Binet ~ Jean-Michel Bismut ~ Jacques Blamont ~ Sylvain Blanquet ~ Guy Blaudin de Thé ~ Brebis Bleaney ~ Nicolaas Bloembergen ~ David Blow ~ Joël Bockaert ~ Enrico Bombieri ~ Jean-Louis Bonnemain ~ Jean-Michel Bony ~ Christian Bordé ~ Armand Borel ~ Raoul Bott ~ Claude Bouchiat ~ Marie-Anne Bouchiat ~ Alain-Michel Boudet ~ Jean Bourgain ~ Joseph Boussinesq ~ Joseph Bové ~ Pierre Braunstein ~ Catherine Bréchignac ~ Abraham Louis Breguet ~ Sydney Brenner ~ Édouard Brézin ~ Haïm Brezis ~ Gérard Bricogne ~ François Bruhat ~ Huy Duong Bui ~ Pierre Buser ~ Louis de Bussy

C : Bernard Cabane ~ Henri Cabannes ~ Michel Caboche ~ Jacques Caen ~ Sébastien Candel ~ Nicole Capitaine ~ André Capron ~ Lennart Carleson ~ Paul Caro ~ Edgardo D. Carosella ~ Alain Carpentier ~ Henri Cartan ~ Bernard Castaing ~ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza ~ André Cauderon ~ Roger Cayrel ~ Anny Cazenave ~ Carlo Cercignani ~ Catherine Cesarsky ~ Marc Chabre ~ William Chaloner ~ Pierre Chambon ~ Christian Champy - Jean-Pierre Changeux ~ Marie-Lise Chanin ~ Jean-Antoine Chaptal ~ Patrick, Pierre Charnay ~ Georges Charpak ~ Yves Chauvin ~ Shiing-Shen Chern ~ Gustave Choquet ~ Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat ~ Philippe Ciarlet ~ Paul Clavin ~ Georges Cohen ~ Claude Cohen-Tannoudji ~ Alain Colmerauer ~ Michel Combarnous ~ Claude Combes ~ Françoise Combes ~ Geneviève, Marie Comte-Bellot ~ Nicolas de Condorcet ~ Alain Connes ~ Yves Coppens ~ Robert, Jean-Pierre Corriu ~ Riccardo Cortese ~ Pierre Corvol ~ Suzanne Cory ~ Pascale Cossart ~ Albert Cotton ~ Georges Courtès ~ Charles Augustin Coulomb ~ Francis Crick ~ Hubert Curien ~ François Cuzin

D : Jack Dainty ~ André Dalesme ~ Thibault Damour ~ Pierre Darriulat ~ Raymond Daudel ~ Jean Baptiste, Gabriel Dausset ~ Robert Dautray ~ Georges David ~ Roger David ~ Michel Davier ~ Gérard Debreu ~ Claude Aimé Debru ~ Henri Léon Décamps ~ Laurent Degos ~ Stanislas Dehaene ~ Paul René Louis Deheuvels ~ Anne Dejean-Assemat ~ Pierre Dejours ~ Pierre Deligne ~ Michel Delseny ~ Jean-Pierre Demailly ~ Jean-François Denisse ~ Derek Denton ~ Jean-Michel Dercourt ~ Peter Dervan ~ Pierre Deslongchamps ~ Michel Devoret ~ Joseph Leo Doob ~ Adrien Douady ~ Roland Douce ~ Ann Patricia Dowling ~ Michel Duflo ~ Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau ~ Bernard Dujon ~ Catherine Dulac ~ Christian Dumas ~ Michel Durand-Delga ~ Henri Duranton ~ Georges Duvaut ~ Christian de Duve ~ Freeman Dyson

E : Gerald Edelman ~ Stuart Edelstein ~ Sir Samuel Frederick Edwards ~ Manfred Eigen ~ Pierre Encrenaz ~ Daniel Esteve

F : Ludwig Faddeev ~ Anne Fagot-Largeault ~ Michel Fardeau ~ Olivier Faugeras ~ Alexandre, Jean, Auguste Favre ~ Charles François de Cisternay du Fay ~ Pierre Fayet ~ Charles Fehrenbach ~ Noël Felici ~ Gérard Férey ~ Albert Fert ~ Mathias Fink ~ Alain Fischer ~ Jean Flahaut ~ Philippe Flajolet ~ Jean-Marc Fontaine ~ Maurice Fontaine ~ Jean-Paul Grandjean de Fouchy ~ Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet ~ Jacques Friedel ~ Uriel Frisch -

G : Pierre Gabriel ~ Pierre Galle ~ Madeleine Gans ~ Antonio Garcia-Bellido ~ Walter Gehring ~ Israel Gelfand ~ Pierre-Gilles de Gennes ~ Reinhard Genzel ~ Paul Germain ~ Étienne Ghys ~ Martin Gibbs ~ François-Hilaire Gilbert ~ Jean Girard ~ Jean Yves Girard ~ Jacques Glowinski ~ Roland Glowinski ~ André Goffeau ~ Marcel Golay ~ Maurice Goldman ~ John Goodenough ~ Denis Gratias ~ Howard Green ~ Norman Greenwood ~ Mikhaïl Gromov ~ François Gros ~ Marianne Grunberg-Manago ~ Jean-Pierre Grünfeld ~ Robert Guillaumont ~ Roger Guillemin ~ Philibert Guinier ~ André Guinier ~ Bernard Guinot ~ Irwin Gunsalus ~ John Gurdon

H : Paul Hagenmuller ~ Erwin Hahn ~ Albin Haller ~ Serge Haroche ~ Heisuke Hironaka ~ Friedrich Hirzebruch ~ Jules, Alphonse Hoffmann ~ Gerard 't Hooft ~ Francis Clark Howell ~ Patrick Huerre ~ Gérard Huet ~ Jean-Paul Hurault ~ Christiaan Huygens

I : Jean Ichbiah ~ Jean Iliopoulos ~ Michel Imbert ~ Gérard Iooss ~ Kiyoshi Itō ~ Masao Itō -

J : François Jacob ~ Maurice Jacob ~ Hervé Jacquet ~ André Jaumotte ~ Claude Jaupart ~ Claude Jeanmart ~ Marc Jeannerod ~ Yves Jeannin ~ Denis-Olivier Jérome ~ Georges Jobert ~ Zdenek Johan ~ Pierre Joliot ~ Jacques Joussot-Dubien ~ Michel Jouvet ~ Marc Julia -

K : Fotis Kafatos ~ Henri, Boris Kagan ~ Jean-Pierre Kahane ~ Axel Kahn ~ Gilles Kahn ~ Rudolf Kalman ~ Eric Kandel ~ Daniel Kaplan ~ Pierre Karli ~ Richard Karp ~ Éric Karsenti ~ Masaki Kashiwara ~ Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir ~ Sergiu Klainerman ~ Daniel Kleppner ~ Bernard Kloareg ~ Aaron Klug ~ Paul Knochel ~ Donald Knuth ~ Maxim Kontsevich ~ Henri Korn ~ Jean-Louis Koszul ~ Vladimir Kotlyakov ~ Philippe Kourilsky ~ Jean Kovalevsky -

L : Antoine Labeyrie ~ Laurent Lafforgue ~ Philippe de La Hire ~ Jean-Yves Lallemand ~ Pierre-Simon Laplace ~ Yves Laporte ~ Jacques Laskar ~ Lucien Laubier ~ Guy Laval ~ Patrick Lavelle ~ Antoine Lavoisier ~ Jean Lavorel ~ Peter Lax ~ Michel Lazdunski ~ Guy Lazorthes ~ Gilles Lebeau ~ Denis Le Bihan ~ Jean-Baptiste Leblond ~ Nicole Le Douarin ~ Gérard Le Fur ~ Adrien-Marie Legendre ~ Jean-Marie Lehn ~ Pierre Lelong ~ Yvon Le Maho ~ Jean-Louis Le Mouël ~ Pierre Léna ~ Gilbert Lenoir ~ Jean-Bernard Le Pecq ~ Jean-Antoine Lepesant ~ Xavier Le Pichon ~ Henri Léridon ~ Hervé Le Treut ~ Pierre Lévêque ~ Claude Lévi ~ Rita Levi-Montalcini ~ Jean-Marc Lhoste ~ Albert Libchaber ~ Amable Liñan ~ Pierre-Louis Lions ~ Jacques Livage ~ Rodolfo Llinas ~ Joseph Lorius ~ Daniel Louvard ~ William Lucas ~ Henry de Lumley-Woodyear ~ Anders Lundberg -

M : Odile Macchi ~ Bernard Mach ~ Bernard Malgrange ~ Edmond Malinvaud ~ Jacques Mallet ~ Paul Malliavin ~ Jean-Louis Mandel ~ Daniel Mansuy ~ Robert Maréchal ~ Charles-Michel Marle ~ Andrée Marquet ~ Ghislain de Marsily ~ Goury Martchouk ~ André Martin ~ François Mathey ~ Michel Mayor ~ Ernst Mayr ~ Gérard Mégie ~ Matthew Meselson ~ Bernard Meunier ~ Dominique Meyer ~ Philippe Meyer ~ Yves Meyer ~ Elliot Meyerowitz ~ Jan Michalski ~ Jean-François Minster ~ Keith Moffatt ~ Roger Monier ~ Gaspard Monge ~ Luc Montagnier ~ Jean Montreuil ~ Dino Moras ~ Philippe Morat ~ René Moreau ~ François Morel ~ William Jason Morgan ~ Leonard Mortenson ~ Vernon Mountcastle ~ Teruaki Mukaiyama ~ Arnold Munnich ~ James Murray -

N : Robert Naquet ~ Louis Nirenberg ~ Yasutomi Nishizuka ~ Maurice Nivat ~ Jean Normant ~ Gustav Nossal ~ Arlette Nougarède ~ Philippe Nozières

O : Satoshi Omura ~ Luis Antonio Oro ~ Gérard Orth ~ Ernst Otten ~ Guy Ourisson ~ Paul Ozenda -

P : Adolphe Pacault ~ Jacob Palis ~ Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky ~ Giorgio Parisi ~ Louis Pasteur ~ Lucio Paternò ~ Renaud Paulian ~ Jean-Claude Pecker ~ Georges Pédro ~ Marc Pélegrin ~ René Pellat ~ Georges Pelletier ~ Pierre Perrier ~ Christine Petit ~ Michel Petit ~ Richard Peto ~ Emilio Picasso ~ Bernard Picinbono ~ Charles Pilet ~ Olivier Pironneau ~ Gilles Pisier ~ Louis Poinsot ~ Jean-Paul Poirier ~ Alexandre Polyakov ~ Yves Pomeau ~ Pierre Potier ~ Michel Pouchard ~ Robert Pound ~ Jacques Pouysségur ~ Frank Press ~ Alain Prochiantz ~ Jacques Prost ~ Jean-Loup Puget -

Q : Yves Quéré -

R : Michael Rabin ~ Miroslav Radman ~ Jean-Pierre Ramis ~ Norman Ramsey ~ Chintamani Rao ~ André Rassat ~ Auguste Rateau ~ Bernard Raveau ~ Pierre-Arnaud Raviart ~ Michel Raynaud ~ Paul-Henri Rebut ~ Serge Renaudin ~ Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon ~ Jacques Ricard ~ James Rice ~ Alexander Rich ~ Rex Richards ~ Daniel Ricquier ~ Jean Robieux ~ Henri Rochefort ~ Herbert Roesky ~ Michel Rohmer ~ Bernard Roques ~ Jean Rosa ~ Maurice Roseau ~ Jean Rossier ~ Emmanuel de Rougé ~ François Rougeon ~ David Ruelle ~ Jacques Ruffié -

S : David Sabatini ~ José-Alain Sahel ~ Jean Salençon ~ Bengt Samuelsson ~ Evariste Sanchez-Palencia ~ Frederick Sanger ~ Philippe Sansonetti ~ Jean-Pierre Sauvage ~ Jean-Michel Savéant ~ Évry Schatzman ~ Knut Schmidt-Nielsen ~ Daniel Schwartz ~ Jean-Charles Schwartz ~ Maxime Schwartz ~ Eugen Seibold ~ Michaël Sela ~ André Sentenac ~ Jean-Pierre Serre ~ Pierre Sigwalt ~ Arndt Simon ~ Pierre Sinaÿ ~ Georges Slodzian ~ Piotr Slonimski ~ Ionel Solomon ~ Susan Solomon ~ Christophe Soulé ~ Erich Spitz ~ Mathias Springer ~ Dominique Stéhelin ~ Raymond Stora ~ Gilbert Stork ~ Pierre Suquet -

T : Michel Talagrand ~ Paul Tapponnier ~ Philippe Taquet ~ Jean-Marie Tarascon ~ Andrzej K. Tarkowski ~ Luc Tartar ~ John Tate ~ Valentine Teledgi ~ Roger Temam ~ Guy Blaudin de Thé ~ Michel Thellier ~ Mathieu Tillet ~ Pierre Tiollais ~ Jean François Marie Tirouflet ~ Bernard Tissot ~ Jacques Tits ~ Gérard Toulouse ~ Roland Tricot ~ Rudolf Trümpy ~ Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus ~ Maurice Tubiana

V : Constantin Vago ~ Alain-Jacques Valleron ~ Gabriele Veneziano ~ Michèle Vergne ~ Jacques Villain ~ Jean-Didier Vincent -

W : Zhen-Yi Wang ~ Pierre Weiss ~ Jean Weissenbach ~ Éric Westhof ~ Andrew Wiles ~ Edward Witten ~ Gérard Wlérick ~ Élie Wollman ~ Lodewijk Woltjer ~ Kurt Wüthrich -

Y : Moshe Yaniv ~ Jean-Christophe Yoccoz ~ Marc Yor -

Z : André Zaoui

Notes

References

External links

Search another word or see French Academyon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature