2 City (1990 pop. 23,680), seat of Dodge co., E central Nebr., on the Platte River; inc. 1858. It is a trade, shipping, and processing center for a grain-growing, dairying, and grazing prairie area. Midland Lutheran College is there.
3 City (1990 pop. 17,648), seat of Sandusky co., N Ohio, on the Sandusky River; inc. 1849. It is a trade and industrial center in an agricultural region specializing in sugar-beet processing and canning. The battle of Fort Stephenson was fought there (1813) during the War of 1812. Shipbuilding was an early industry. The house and tomb of President Rutherford B. Hayes (a state memorial) are in Spiegel Grove State Park.
Home to 213,512 people as of a 2008 estimate, Fremont is the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Due in large measure to immigration by refugees fleeing the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, Afghan Civil War, and small amounts during the Taliban government during the late 1980s and 1990s, Fremont had the largest Afghan population in the United States in 2001.
According to the census of 2008, there were approximately 213,512 people, 68,237 households, and 52,201 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,024.1/km² (2,652.3/sq mi) However, this number is deceptively low because the city limits include large areas of undevelopable marshland on the edge of the city. There were 69,452 housing units at an average density of 905.6/sq mi (349.7/km²).
2006 estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau report that the racial makeup of the city is 45.9% Asian, 38.3% White, 13.5% Latino, 3.1% African American, 13% from other races or multiracial, 0.52% Native American, and 0.40% Pacific Islander. Fremont's total household population was estimated then to be 210,387. The foreign-born population was 95,894, 51% of whom were naturalized US citizens.
Fremont also has a large Deaf community, in large part due to the fact that it is home to the Northern California campus of the California School for the Deaf.
There were 68,237 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.5% were non-families. 16.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.34.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 36.8% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males.
According to the 2006 estimate, the median income for a household in the city is $88,335, and the median income for a family was $97,499. Males have a median household income of $59,274 versus $40,625 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,411. About 3.6% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over.
Politically, Fremont leans strongly to the Democratic Party. It voted for Kerry with 66% of the vote.
The Fremont Unified School District has five comprehensive high schools for students in grades 9-12: American, Kennedy, Irvington, Mission San Jose and Washington. These five high schools, along with James Logan High School in Union City and Newark Memorial High School in Newark, make up the Mission Valley Athletic League (M.V.A.L.).
In addition to the five comprehensive high schools, the district has a continuation high school (Robertson); two independent study programs (Vista and COIL); an adult school; five junior high schools for grades 7-8 (Centerville, Hopkins, Horner, Thornton and Walters); and 29 elementary schools (K-6). The district operates the Mission Valley Regional Occupational Programjointly with Newark and New Haven Unified School Districts.
The main campus of Ohlone College is located in Fremont, with a smaller center in Newark. The University of California, Berkeley has an extension campus located in Fremont, and the University of Phoenix Bay Area Campus and Northwestern Polytechnic University and DeVry University offer undergraduate and graduate programs in technology and management areas.
The city is also home to Fremont Christian School and California School for the Deaf, Fremont, which serves Northern California. It shares its campus with the Statewide California School for the Blind
The family of Don José de Jesus Vallejo, brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the most influential in Fremont in the late colonial era. His family owned a large rancho and built a flour mill at the mouth of Niles Canyon. In 1846 they were visited by the town's namesake John C. Frémont. Fremont grew rapidly at the time of the Gold Rush. Agriculture dominated the economy with grapes, nursery plants and olives as leading crops. In 1868 a magnitude 6.8 earthquake on the Hayward Fault collapsed buildings throughout Fremont, ruining Mission San José and its outbuildings. Until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused its destruction, Fremont's Palmdale Winery was the largest in California. The ruins of the Palmdale Winery are still visible near the Five Corners in Irvington.
From 1912-1916 the Niles section of Fremont was the earliest home of California's motion picture industry. Charlie Chaplin filmed several movies in Fremont, most notably "The Tramp." Fremont was incorporated in 1956, when five towns in the area came together to form a city. Fremont became more industrialized in the 1950s and 1960s. The General Motors automotive assembly plant in Warm Springs was the town's largest employer, and Fremont was known for its drag strip. In the 1980s the GM plant became a joint venture automotive assembly plant of Toyota and General Motors called NUMMI. A boom in high-tech employment in the 1980s to the late 1990s, especially in the Warm Springs District, caused rapid development in the city.
Centerville includes all of North and most of Central Fremont. The Centerville Pioneer Cemetery contains the burial places of many of the city's founding pioneers.
Centerville is the focal point of a sizable Afghan community, and the area is informally known in some circles as "Little Kabul" . The best-selling novel The Kite Runner is partly set in Fremont's Afghan community. A 99 Ranch Market is one of many East Asian businesses in the area. Centerville can also be traced back to its native American roots.
Fremont's community college, Ohlone College, is situated one block away from the mission and serves over 12,000 students.
Mission San Jose has the highest concentration of Asian Americans in Fremont - over 50% of the population as of the 2000 census. The local high school is Mission San Jose High School. The median family income for the Mission San Jose area (ZIP code 94539) exceeded $114,595 in 2005. Owing to an influx of professionals and other affluent families seeking access to the top-performing local public schools, Mission San Jose's median home value reached $831,000 in 2006, earning the community a rank of 237 on Forbes magazine's list of the 500 most affluent communities in the United States.
In 2001 an attempt by community organizations in the Mission San Jose district to withdraw from the Fremont Unified School District caused state-wide controversy and led to accusations of racism from both sides. The attempt was prompted by a re-drawing of the school enrollment areas, under which some Mission San Jose residents would send their children to Horner Junior High and Irvington High schools. The controversial effort to secede was dropped later that year. Fremont's public schools continue to rank among the best in California. Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) and Interstate 680 (Sinclair Freeway), which do not meet or cross each other in the city. In addition, it is served by SR 84 and Mission Boulevard. The city is the eastern terminus of the Dumbarton Bridge. Regional rail transportation is provided by BART and the Altamont Commuter Express (ACE). Fremont's BART station serves as the southernmost terminus for the BART system (BART extensions to the Warm Springs district and southward into San Jose have been in the planning stages for several years). Centerville station provides a stopping point for ACE service which travels from Stockton to San Jose. Bus service is provided by AC Transit locally. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority provides express bus service to various points in Silicon Valley, including downtown San Jose and California's Great America (seasonally) in Santa Clara, thus providing an alternative to the already heavy traffic on I-880 and I-680.
Elevated sound levels exist in some areas of Fremont, especially along Interstate 880. Since the 1980s efforts have been made by Caltrans and the city to mitigate sound levels by construction of noise barriers. The Federal design level for freeway noise is 67 Leq, which standard has been used in analysis of the proper sound wall height.
On February 27, 2007, the San Jose Mercury News reported that just across the street from the envisioned ballpark village site sits Scott Specialty Gases, a distributor of highly toxic materials used in semiconductor manufacturing. Fremont officials advised team owner Lew Wolff that he'd need to either relocate the plant or find another way to mitigate the potential hazard posed by a toxic gas cloud floating over a ballpark filled with 32,000 people. This is seen as a major obstacle in getting a stadium built in Fremont.
On May 10, 2007, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that the team had signed a contract to buy of land in Fremont.