Francis Joseph

Francis Joseph

Francis Joseph or Franz Joseph, 1830-1916, emperor of Austria (1848-1916), king of Hungary (1867-1916), nephew of Ferdinand, who abdicated in his favor. His long reign began in the stormy days of the revolutions of 1848 and ended in the midst of World War I. In that troubled period of growing nationalism, he held the many peoples of his empire together. He subdued Hungary (1849) and in the same year defeated Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. In the Italian War of 1859, in which he faced Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel, he lost Lombardy to Sardinia by the Treaty of Villafranca di Verona. In the Austro-Prussian War (1866) his only territorial loss was that of Venetia to Italy, but his crushing defeat resulted in the loss of Austrian influence over German affairs and in the ascendancy of Prussia. Constant pressure from Hungary led to the reorganization (1867) of the empire as a dual monarchy—the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. In 1879, Francis Joseph joined Germany in an alliance that later also included Italy (see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente). His reign, although it brought material prosperity, was disturbed by the discontent of the national minorities, notably the Slavs. When Russian Pan-Slavism backed Serbia, particularly after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908), a situation was created that helped bring on World War I. Francis Joseph's private life was beset by the tragedies falling on his wife, Empress Elizabeth, his brother, Maximilian of Mexico, and his son, Archduke Rudolf. In 1914 his nephew, the heir apparent, Francis Ferdinand, was assassinated, and his death was the spark that set off World War I. Francis Joseph died before the empire actually fell apart under the impact of military defeat, as it did under his successor, Charles I.

See biographies by J. Redlich (1928; tr. 1929, repr. 1965), K. Tschuppik (1928, tr. 1930), A. Murad (1968), and A. Palmer (1995); C. W. Clark, Franz Joseph and Bismarck (1934, repr. 1968); E. Crankshaw, Fall of the House of Habsburg (1963, repr. 1971); G. B. Marek, The Eagles Die (1974).

Gall, Francis Joseph, 1758-1828, Austrian anatomist and founder of phrenology. He devoted most of his life to a minute study of the nervous system, especially the brain. With the collaboration of a favorite pupil, John Caspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), he incorporated his research into a four-volume work and atlas that appeared from 1810 to 1819. Gall demonstrated that the white matter of the brain consists of nerve fibers, and he launched the doctrine of localization in parts of the brain of various mental processes. Derided for his later involvement with the pseudoscience of phrenology, he left Austria but was received with honors in France and died a wealthy man in Paris. Spurzheim carried the teachings of Gall to England and the United States, also with great success.
Spellman, Francis Joseph, 1889-1967, American Roman Catholic cardinal, b. Whitman, Mass. Educated at Fordham Univ. and the American College at Rome, he was ordained May 14, 1916. He was a parish priest in Roxbury, Mass., held various offices in the Boston archdiocese, and was the first American assistant to the papal secretariat of state (1925). He was named (1932) auxiliary bishop of Boston and succeeded (1939) after the death of Cardinal Hayes to the archdiocese of New York. He was elevated to cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946.

See biographies by R. I. Gannon (1962) and W. Steibel (1966).

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