Francis

Francis

[fran-sis]
Parkman, Francis, 1823-93, American historian, b. Boston. In 1846, Parkman started a journey along the Oregon Trail to improve his health and study the Native Americans. On his return to Boston he collapsed physically and moved to Brattleboro, Vt. There Parkman dictated to his cousin The Oregon Trail, published in book form as The California and Oregon Trail (1849); the shorter title was resumed in later editions. Despite ill health, he labored on his History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac (1851) and wrote an unsuccessful novel, Vassall Morton (1856). Following a trip to Paris in 1858 to seek medical aid, he was for several years unable to continue his historical researches. He took up the study of horticulture and became an expert in the field. In 1866, The Book of Roses was published, and from 1871 to 1872 he was professor of horticulture at Harvard. He eventually resumed his studies of the history of Canada and the early Northwest, publishing Pioneers of France in the New World (1865), The Discovery of the Great West (1869; 11th and later editions pub. as La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West), The Old Régime in Canada (1874), Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV (1877), Montcalm and Wolfe (1884), and A Half-Century of Conflict (1892). Parkman served for a time as overseer of Harvard and later as a fellow of the Harvard Corp. (1875-88). He was a founder of the Archaeological Institute of America (1879) and was president of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society (1875-78). Parkman's superior literary gifts, combined with his careful historical research, gained him wide contemporary prominence. His work showed both anti-Catholic and antidemocratic prejudices, but it usually managed to combine accuracy and vigor of expression. There are several editions of Parkman's complete works. His journals were edited by Mason Wade (1947) and his letters by Wilbur R. Jacobs (1960).

See biographies and studies by C. H. Farnham (1901, repr. 1969), H. O. Sedgwick (1904), M. Wade (1942), O. A. Pease (1953, repr. 1968), and R. L. Gale (1974).

Jammes, Francis, 1868-1938, French poet. He lived most of his life in the Pyrenees. Jammes is usually grouped with the symbolists, but he is distinguished from them by the simplicity and artlessness of his pastoral poetry. De l'angélus de l'aube à l'angélus du soir (1898) brought him wide acclaim. Later works, including Clairières dans le ciel (1906) and Géorgiques Chrétiennes (1911-12), are suffused with Catholic spirit. He also wrote charming stories about rustic people.
Lewis, Francis, 1713-1802?, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Llandaff, Wales. As clothing contractor for British troops during the French and Indian War, he was captured (1756) at Oswego, and was sent to France. Lewis later returned to America and was a member of the Stamp Act Congress (1765) and the Continental Congress (1775-79).
Lieber, Francis, 1798-1872, German-American political philosopher, b. Berlin. Ardently patriotic, he enlisted in the Prussian army and fought and was wounded at the battle of Waterloo. On his return to Germany he joined the Turnverein movement. In the suppression of student organizations in 1819, Lieber became suspect for his liberal ideas and was harried by the police for the remainder of his life in Germany; he was twice imprisoned. Not permitted to attend a Prussian university, he obtained a degree at Jena. In 1826 he fled to England. He went to Boston in 1827 to teach Jahn's system of gymnastics. From his idea of translating the Brockhaus encyclopedia into English sprang the first edition of The Encyclopaedia Americana (13 vol., 1829-33), which he edited. Lieber was professor of history and political economy (1835-56) at South Carolina College (now Univ. of South Carolina). While there he wrote the books that established his reputation as a political philosopher—A Manual of Political Ethics (1838), Essays on Property and Labor (1841), and On Civil Liberty and Self-Government (1853). He taught at Columbia from 1856 until his death. During the Civil War, he prepared for the Union government Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, known in its final form as General Order No. 100, issued in 1863. It was the basis for later efforts to codify the international law of war. After the Civil War, Lieber joined the radical Republicans.

See biography by F. Freidel (1948, repr. 1968); R. S. Hartigan, Lieber's Code and the Law of War (1983).

Asbury, Francis, 1745-1816, Methodist bishop in America, b. England. The Wesleyan conference in London sent him in 1771 as a missionary to America, where he promoted the growth of the circuit rider system that proved so eminently suited to frontier conditions. His powerful preaching, his skill in winning converts, and his mastery of organization had, by the end of the Revolution, established Asbury as the leader of American Methodism. In 1784, John Wesley ordained Dr. Thomas Coke as superintendent of the societies in America; Asbury was to be associate superintendent. At the American conference held that year, however, Asbury was the dominant figure and was made superintendent. He then assumed the title of bishop and took steps to institute a centralized church government. Although tormented by ill health, he maintained personal supervision of the expanding church, traveling on horseback over 5,000 mi (8,047 km) each year and strongly entrenching Methodism over the entire area of the new nation. His journal is valuable for its account of contemporary society as well of his personal life.

See his journal and letters (3 vol., 1958).

Nicholson, Francis, 1655-1728, British colonial administrator in North America. Lieutenant governor under Sir Edmund Andros, he fled (1689) to England during the revolt in New York led by Jacob Leisler. He returned (1690) to America as lieutenant governor of Virginia and was later governor of Maryland (1694-98) and governor of Virginia (1698-1705). A Modest Answer to a Malicious Libel (1704) is a defense of his conduct in quarrels in Virginia. In 1709 Nicholson led an expedition against Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, N.S.) and the next year successfully occupied the town, recording his experiences in the Journal of an Expedition … for the Reduction of Port Royal (1711). He was named (1713) governor of Nova Scotia, but his term of office ended on the death of Queen Anne in 1714. He was (1720-25) royal governor of South Carolina. During all his administrations he actively promoted education and the Church of England.
Place, Francis, 1771-1854, English radical reformer. A tailor for many years, he educated himself and made his shop a meeting center for radicals and reformers. He was especially active in the trade-union movement; through his efforts the antiunion Combination Acts of 1799-1800 were repealed (1824). He was also an early leader of the Chartists (see Chartism), helping to draft the "People's Charter." His pamphlets on social questions include Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population (1822), one of the earliest tracts on birth control.

See his autobiography, ed. by M. Thale (1972); biographies by G. Wallas (4th ed. 1925, repr. 1951) and M. Dudley (1988).

Borgia, Francis: see Francis Borgia, Saint.
Bourne, Francis, 1861-1935, English prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He entered the priesthood in 1884 and later was made bishop coadjutor of Southwark (1896), bishop of Southwark (1897), archbishop of Westminster (1903), and cardinal (1911). He accomplished a great deal by his moderate policies in avoiding difficulties between the Catholic Church and the state in England.
Quarles, Francis, 1592-1644, English poet. His best-known work is Emblems (1635), a book of moral and religious verse. Though not an ardent royalist, he wrote pamphlets during the Commonwealth upholding the divine right of kings. Enchiridion (1640) is his collection of prose aphorisms.
Picabia, Francis, 1878-1953, French painter. After working in an impressionist style, Picabia was influenced by cubism and later was one of the original exponents of Dada in Europe and the United States. He contributed to avant-garde periodicals and became associated with the Paris surrealists. Picabia, possessed of an intensely individual temperament, influenced numerous artists of different schools without ever confining himself to one mode of artistic expression. His Physical Culture (1913) is at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Higginson, Francis, 1586-1630, American colonial clergyman, b. Leicestershire, England, M.A. Cambridge, 1613. Admitted (1614) to the ministry of the Church of England, he later became a nonconformist and in 1629 sailed with a group of settlers for Salem, Mass. His journal of the first months at Salem was sent back to England and printed with the title New-England's Plantation (1630). Elected minister of the settlement, he drew up a confession of faith and a covenant that were adopted. He soon died as a result of hardships suffered the first winter.

See biography by T. W. Higginson (1891), which contains his complete journal.

Dewing, Francis, fl. 1716-22, early American engraver, b. England. He came to Boston in 1716 as an engraver and printer, probably one of the first in America. In 1722 he engraved and printed a large map, The Town of Boston in New England, by John Bonner.
Ponge, Francis, 1899-1988, French essayist and poet. A controversial figure, he was opposed to emotional and symbolic poetic methods. His method was to observe things meticulously and describe them in rational, yet lyric terms. His works include Le Parti-pris des choses (1942; tr. The Voice of Things, 1972), and La Rage de l'expression (1952).
Jeffrey, Francis, Lord Jeffrey, 1773-1850, Scottish critic and judge. He was a founder and editor of the Edinburgh Review, which printed his critical essays.

See his Contributions to the Edinburgh Review (4 vol., 1844).

Hutcheson, Francis, 1694-1746, British philosopher, b. Co. Down, Ireland. He was a professor at the Univ. of Glasgow from 1729 until his death. His reputation rests on four essays published anonymously while he was living in Dublin, prior to his college teaching. Two of them were included in An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725) and two in An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense (1728). Although one of the first to write on the subject of aesthetics, he was primarily known in the field of ethics. According to Hutcheson, man has many senses, the most important of which is the moral sense. This "benevolent theory of morals," in which man has a desire to do good, was a development of Shaftesbury's natural affection to benevolent action and was in opposition to Hobbes's theories. The criterion of moral action was the "greatest happiness for the greatest numbers," an anticipation of the utilitarian philosophers in word as well as spirit.

See his System of Moral Philosophy (with memoir by Rev. W. Leechman, 1755). See studies by W. L. Taylor (1965), P. Kivy (1976), and V. Hope (1989).

Francis, Saint, or Saint Francis of Assisi, 1182?-1226, founder of the Franciscans, one of the greatest Christian saints, b. Assisi, Umbria, Italy.

Early Life

His baptismal name was Giovanni (John), his father's name was Pietro de Bernardone; from his birth Giovanni di Bernardone was called Francesco (Francis) [Ital., =Frenchman], because his father was a frequent traveler in France and admired much that he saw there. The name Francis (and its equivalents in other languages) owes its great popularity to St. Francis, for before him it was a name rarely given. Pietro de Bernardone was a wealthy merchant, and his son's early life was ordinary. At the age of 20, however, Francis was taken prisoner in a battle between Assisi and Perugia and spent a year in prison in Perugia.

Conversion

Two years after his return from Perugia, Francis set out for the wars in Apulia, but illness forced him home again. He then underwent a conversion that turned him from the worldly life he had been leading. He became markedly devout and ascetic, began dressing in rags, and went on a pilgrimage to Rome (1206). A series of events at that time revealed strikingly the characteristics that Francis was always to exemplify: humility, love of absolute poverty, singular devotion to others and to the Roman Church, and joyous religious fervor.

Founding of the Franciscan Order

In 1209, as he was hearing Mass, the words of Jesus in the Gospel (Mat. 10.7-10) bidding his apostles to go forth on their mission struck Francis as a call. So he set out, still a layman, to preach; when a small group had gathered about him, they went to Rome to see Pope Innocent III, who gave them oral permission to live in the manner Francis had chosen. Thus began the Franciscan order of friars, an entirely new type of order in the church. They wandered about Umbria and through Italy preaching the Gospel, working to pay for their very simple needs. The expansion of the friars was very rapid. In 1212 St. Clare began to follow St. Francis, and the Poor Clares (Second Order of St. Francis), a cloistered, contempletive order was established. Francis not only sent the brothers abroad but went himself—to Dalmatia, to France, to Spain, and in 1219-20 to the Holy Land. On his way to Palestine he stopped at Damietta and preached to the sultan.

A growing dissension in his order recalled him from Palestine, and after his return (1221) a great assembly was held at the small chapel of the Porziuncola near Assisi, with which Francis's career was closely identified. There the saint gave up active leadership of the order, for he felt it had become too unwieldy to command. He continued his preaching and the composition of his rule and sponsored the Franciscan tertiaries (Third Order of St. Francis).

The Stigmata and His Death

Two years before his death (1224) the most famous event of his life occurred. He received the stigmata; as he prayed on the Monte della Verna, he had a vision and was afflicted with the wounds of the Crucifixion, from which he suffered for the rest of his life. It is the first known appearance of the stigmata, one of the best attested, and the only one that is celebrated liturgically (on Sept. 17) in the Roman Catholic Church. Francis died Oct. 3, 1226. Two years later Pope Gregory IX, who had been his patron and friend, canonized him; his feast is Oct. 4.

Bibliography

The sources for the life of St. Francis are two lives by Thomas of Celano and the biography by St. Bonaventure. Later medieval works are the Legenda trium sociorum, the Sacrum commercium, and the Speculum perfectionis. The Italian Fioretti di San Francesco [little flowers of St. Francis], a series of short anecdotes, has always been popular for its picture of St. Francis and his companions. It exemplifies in simplest form his love of nature and of humanity, a love so great that he preached one time to the sparrows at Alviano (he is often depicted in art preaching to the birds). His spirit also breathes in the Cantico del sole [hymn of the sun], which he may have written, and in the rules for his orders. Artistic and literary representations of St. Francis are innumerable; see L. Cunningham, comp., Brother Francis (1972); biographies by G. K. Chesterton (1924), J. H. Smith (1972), A. House (2001), and V. Martin (2001); study by E. A. Armstrong (1973).

Francis, 1554-84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. Although ill-shapen, pockmarked, and endowed with a curiously formed nose, he was considered (1572-73) as a possible husband for Queen Elizabeth I of England. During the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars of), he opposed the anti-Protestant policy of his mother and conspired with Huguenots and moderate Catholics against his mother and his brother, King Charles IX. By the peace of 1576, which ended the fifth war of religion, he obtained the appanages of Anjou, Touraine, and Berry. He led (1578) an expedition into the Netherlands, which was then in rebellion against Spain. In the same year, he was again prominent as Elizabeth's suitor. Offered (1580) the rule of the Low Countries by William the Silent, leader of the rebellious states, he led a new invasion and was for a time the ruler of several provinces, but in 1583 was compelled to withdraw. His death opened the French succession to Henry of Navarre (later King Henry IV).
Francis, David Rowland, 1850-1927, U.S. Secretary of the Interior (1896-97), b. Richmond, Ky. He established a large grain business in St. Louis, entered politics, and served (1885-89) as mayor in a reform administration and later (1889-93) as governor of Missouri. As a member of President Cleveland's cabinet, he obtained a presidential proclamation setting aside millions of acres as forest reserves. Francis was a leading promoter and official of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1903-4. He became ambassador to Russia in 1916 and remained at his post after the Russian Revolution in efforts to keep Russia united with the Allies. He wrote Russia from the American Embassy (1921, repr. 1970); his memoirs and letters were published in 1928.
Francis, Dick (Richard Stanley Francis), 1920-, English novelist. He was formerly a professional champion steeplechase jockey (1946-57) and a racing writer for a London newspaper (1957-73). Francis parlayed his knowledge of horse racing into many successful mystery novels that share racetrack settings or elements. They include Dead Cert (1962), his first mystery; Twice Shy (1982); Break In (1986); 10 Lb. Penalty (1997); and Field of Thirteen (1998). Francis also wrote an autobiography, The Sport of Queens (1957; repr. 1986), which chronicles his life through his years as a jockey.
Francis, Sir Philip, 1740-1818, British statesman and pamphleteer. He may have been the author known as Junius. He held several minor posts in government offices before being appointed to the council of Bengal in 1773. While in India he conducted a long, bitter feud with Warren Hastings, which culminated in a duel in 1780 in which Francis was wounded. He returned to England the following year, became a member of Parliament in 1784, and took an active part in the impeachment proceedings against Hastings. An advocate of various political reforms and the advancement of individual liberty, he contributed articles to periodicals and wrote numerous pamphlets.
Francis, Sam, 1923-94, American painter, b. San Mateo, Calif. Educated in medicine, Francis began painting while recovering from an injury received in World War II. His mural-sized paintings are stained with brilliant, transparent oil color. Small areas of color are concentrated irregularly over a canvas that is largely white. In his later works the use of color is confined to the sides of the canvas.
Hopkinson, Francis, 1737-91, American writer and musician, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Philadelphia. A practicing lawyer, Hopkinson was also an accomplished poet, essayist, and musician and is considered the first native American composer of a secular song, My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free (1759). Hopkinson represented (1776) New Jersey in the Continental Congress and later (1776-78) served as chairman of the Navy Board (as such he may have designed the American flag) and as treasurer of the Continental Loan Office (1778-81). He wrote in support of the adoption of the U.S. Constitution and returned to public office in Pennsylvania, where he served as judge of the U.S. District Court (1789-91).

See his essays and writings (3 vol., 1792; repr. 1968); biographies by G. E. Hastings (1926, repr. 1968) and O. G. Sonneck (1905, repr. 1966).

Carco, Francis, 1886-1958, French poet and novelist, b. New Caledonia of Corsican parents. His real name was François Carcopino. The bohemian Parisian life he cherished is portrayed in several of his novels, including Jesus-la-Caille (1914). Among his verses are La Bohème et mon cɶur (1912) and Poèmes en prose (1948).
Beaumont, Francis, 1584?-1616, English dramatist. Born of a distinguished family, he studied at Oxford and the Inner Temple. His literary reputation is linked with that of John Fletcher, with whom he began collaborating about 1606. Their plays are noted for plot symmetry, refined taste, and provocative sexual situations. The plays usually ascribed to him as sole author are The Woman Hater (published 1607), the burlesque Knight of the Burning Pestle (c.1607), Philaster (c.1609), and The Maid's Tragedy (c.1610). After his marriage in 1613 he retired to his estate in Kent and ceased writing for the stage.

See biography by L. Bliss (1987); studies by G. C. Campbell (1972) and M. Baldwin (1974).

Makemie, Francis, c.1658-1708, American clergyman, considered the founder of Presbyterianism in America. Born in Ireland, he studied in Scotland and c.1682 was ordained a missionary to America. In 1683 he arrived in Maryland. He traveled and preached from the Carolinas to New York. Makemie organized Presbyterian churches at Snow Hill and Rehobeth, Md. In 1704 he went to England for funds and men to strengthen Presbyterianism in America; in 1706, through his efforts, the first presbytery in the country was organized in Philadelphia. Makemie was arrested and imprisoned (1707) by Governor Cornbury of New York on the charge of preaching there without a license. Though acquitted, he had to pay heavy costs. He died in Virginia.

See biography by I. M. Page (1938); biographical study ed. by B. S. Schlenther (1971); C. A. Briggs, American Presbyterianism (1985).

Fauquier, Francis, c.1704-1768, acting royal governor of Virginia (1758-68). He came to the colony as lieutenant governor in 1758, and in the absence of the governors—the earl of Loudon (1756-63) and Jeffery Amherst (1763-68)—he was the chief administrative officer. Instructions sent with him demanded that the office of treasurer of the colony be taken from the speaker of the house of burgesses, but he disobeyed these instructions and gained and maintained the friendship of the house. In 1760 he informed the government of the trend toward opposition to British policies in the colony and proposed that British tax policy be changed. In 1765, however, he dissolved the house of burgesses when it passed a resolution against the Stamp Act.
Throckmorton or Throgmorton, Francis, 1554-84, English conspirator; nephew of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. A Roman Catholic, he began (1580) a tour of Europe, spent largely in discussing cooperative measures between French and English Catholics. In 1583 he returned to England and organized means of communication between the imprisoned Mary Queen of Scots and the French and Spanish courts. His activities aroused suspicion, and he was arrested (1583). A search of his house revealed a list of English Catholics willing to assist a rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I and other incriminating documents. Throckmorton was tortured and confessed. Although he later retracted his confession, he was convicted and executed.
Throgmorton, Francis: see Throckmorton, Francis.
Russell, Francis, dukes and earls of Bedford: see Russell, family.
Poulenc, Francis, 1899-1963, French composer and pianist. He was one of Les Six, a group of French composers who subscribed to the aesthetic ideals of Erik Satie. The spontaneity and lyricism of Poulenc's style are best adapted to small forms—piano pieces such as Mouvements perpétuels (1918) and songs. Also outstanding are the ballet Les Biches (1924); Concert Champětre (1929), for harpsichord and orchestra; the Mass in G (1937), for chorus and organ; Litanies à la Vierge noire (1936), for women's choir and organ; the Intermezzo in A Flat Major (1944), for piano; and the Concerto in G Minor for organ, strings, and percussion (1938). His operas are Les Mamelles de Tirésias (1947) and Dialogues des Carmélites (1957).
Vigo, Francis, 1747-1836, American frontier trader and merchant, supporter of the American Revolution. He was born at Mondovi, Italy, and originally named Giuseppe Maria Francesco Vigo. Having enlisted in the Spanish army, he was sent to Cuba and to New Orleans, where he became interested in the fur trade. After his military service, he went to St. Louis and was secretly an agent of the Spanish governor while he built up a successful business among the Native Americans. After George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia (1778), Vigo took up the American cause, and his assistance with money, supplies, and information helped make possible Clark's recapture of Vincennes. In 1783, Vigo settled in Vincennes, where he became an American citizen. His claims for his advances to Clark were not honored until long after his death.

See biography by B. Roselli (1933).

Hayman, Francis, 1708-76, English painter. Influenced by the French rococo style, Hayman painted conversation pieces—landscape scenes peopled by fashionable contemporaries (see portraiture). He also worked as a designer at the Drury Lane Theatre.
Deak, Francis, Hung. Deák Ferenc, 1803-76, Hungarian politician. A landed proprietor and lawyer, he entered the Hungarian diet in 1833 and became minister of justice after the revolution of Mar., 1848. He vainly opposed Louis Kossuth, trying to prevent an open break with Austria, and upon his failure he withdrew from public affairs. After the defeat (1849) of the Hungarian revolutionists, Deak became the recognized leader of his nation. Though always advocating the continued union of Austria and Hungary, he insisted on the restoration of the Hungarian constitution of 1848, Hungarian territorial integrity, and the recognition of Hungary as a separate kingdom. The government of Emperor Francis Joseph having begun, in 1860, to seek reconciliation with Hungarian national sentiment, Deak in the diet of 1866 cooperated with Julius Andrássy in drawing up a report on a new constitution. This report was the basis of the negotiations (1867) between Deak and the Austrian chancellor, F. F. Beust, which resulted in the Ausgleich [compromise] establishing the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Deak continued to act as a moderating force.
Thompson, Francis, 1859-1907, English poet. His poetry, usually on religious subjects, is noted for its brilliant imagery and sonorous language. He was educated for the Roman Catholic priesthood at Ushaw College but in 1877 entered Owens College, Manchester, to study medicine. Relinquishing his medical studies in 1885, he went to London, where he lived a destitute life, suffering from ill health, poverty, and opium addiction. In 1888 he sent a manuscript to Wilfrid Meynell who, with his wife Alice Meynell, edited the Catholic periodical Merry England. They recognized Thompson's poetic ability and took him under their care. Poems (1893), which attracted much attention, contained "The Hound of Heaven," Thompson's chief and best-known work, describing the poet's futile flight from God. Two more volumes appeared, Sister Songs (1895) and New Poems (1897), both supplemented by the publication of a few more poems after his death. Thompson spent the years from 1893 to 1897 in a monastery in Wales. Although Thompson is considered an important English poet, his verse has frequently been criticized for its verbosity and lack of originality in thought. Thompson also wrote a number of essays, including a study of Shelley (1909).

See his Literary Criticisms (ed. by T. L. Connolly, 1948); biographies by E. Meynell (1913, repr. 1971), and P. van K. Thomson (1961, repr. 1972); studies by J. C. Reid (1959) and R. L. Mégroz (1927, repr. 1971).

Willughby, Francis, 1635-72, English naturalist. He is known especially for his early systematic work on birds and fishes, in which he made some of the most important contributions before those of Linnaeus. He toured the Continent with John Ray, collecting material for his Ornithologia (1676, in Latin), translated into English by Ray as The Ornithology of Francis Willughby (1678). Ray also published Willughby's De Historia piscium (1686).
Granger, Francis, 1792-1868, American political leader, b. Suffield, Conn. He practiced law in Canandaigua, N.Y., and served (1826-28, 1830-32) in the New York state legislature. A prominent leader of the Anti-Masonic party, he was twice (1830, 1832) defeated for governor as its nominee. He was elected as a Whig to Congress in 1834. Appointed Postmaster General by President William Henry Harrison, Granger resigned (1841) with other cabinet members at Harrison's death. After another term (1841-43) in Congress, he became a leader of the conservative Whigs who opposed their party's drift toward radical antislavery views. He favored the Compromise of 1850, and with a small following withdrew (1850) from the Whig convention at Syracuse when resolutions were adopted endorsing William H. Seward's opposition to the compromise measures.
Wharton, Francis, 1820-89, American clergyman and lawyer, b. Philadelphia, grad. Yale, 1839. Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1843, he became an authority on criminal law and wrote A Treatise on the Criminal Law of the United States (1846). He was (1856-63) professor of history and literature at Kenyon College. He was ordained (1862) an Episcopalian minister, and he was (1871-81) professor of canon law at the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Mass. During this period he wrote A Treatise on the Conflict of Laws (1872). As head of the legal division of the U.S. Dept. of State (1885-88), he edited A Digest of the International Law of the United States (3 vol., 2d ed. 1887) and The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States (6 vol., 1889, 2d ed. 1969).

See biography by H. E. Wharton (1891).

Dana, Francis, 1743-1811, American diplomat, b. Charlestown, Mass. Son of a prominent lawyer, he was himself a lawyer. He went as a colonial agent to England, then served as a delegate to the Massachusetts provincial council (1776-80) and the Continental Congress (1776-78), before accompanying (1779) John Adams on his mission to Paris. In 1780, Dana was sent to Russia. Although he stayed at St. Petersburg for two years (1781-83), he was never recognized or accredited. He later was a justice of the Massachusetts supreme court (1785-1806), becoming chief justice in 1791. Richard Henry Dana (1787-1879) was his son.

See biography by W. P. Cresson (1930).

Danby, Francis, 1793-1861, British historical and landscape painter. He painted many romantic and imaginary scenes and excelled in depicting sunrise and sunset. A good example of his work is Conway Castle (British Mus.).

See study by E. Adams (1973).

Marion, Francis, c.1732-1795, American Revolutionary soldier, known as the Swamp Fox, b. near Georgetown, S.C. He was a planter and Indian fighter before joining (1775) William Moultrie's regiment at the start of the American Revolution. In 1779 he fought under Benjamin Lincoln at Savannah and escaped (1780) capture at Charleston by being on sick leave. Marion organized a troop (1780), which, after the American defeat at Camden in the Carolina campaign, constituted the chief colonial force in South Carolina. Engaging in guerrilla warfare, he disrupted the British lines of communication, captured scouting and foraging parties, and intimidated Loyalists. His habit of disappearing into the swamps to elude the British earned him his nickname. When Nathanael Greene had succeeded in ousting the British from North Carolina (see Carolina campaign), his lieutenant, Light-Horse Harry Lee, brought reinforcements to Marion, and they took part together in several battles, notably that at Eutaw Springs (Sept. 8, 1781). After the war, Marion served in the South Carolina senate, where he advocated a lenient policy toward the Loyalists.

See biographies by W. G. Simms (1844, repr. 1971) and H. F. Rankin (1973).

Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626, English philosopher, essayist, and statesman, b. London, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and at Gray's Inn. He was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper to Queen Elizabeth I. Francis Bacon was a member of Parliament in 1584 and his opposition to Elizabeth's tax program retarded his political advancement; only the efforts of the earl of Essex led Elizabeth to accept him as an unofficial member of her Learned Council. At Essex's trial in 1601, Bacon, putting duty to the state above friendship, assumed an active part in the prosecution—a course for which many have condemned him. With the succession of James I, Bacon's fortunes improved. He was knighted in 1603, became attorney general in 1613, lord keeper in 1617, and lord chancellor in 1618; he was created Baron Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Albans in 1621. In 1621, accused of accepting bribes as lord chancellor, he pleaded guilty and was fined £40,000, banished from the court, disqualified from holding office, and sentenced to the Tower of London. The banishment, fine, and imprisonment were remitted. Nevertheless, his career as a public servant was ended. He spent the rest of his life writing in retirement.

Bacon belongs to both the worlds of philosophy and literature. He projected a large philosophical work, the Instauratio Magna, but completed only two parts, The Advancement of Learning (1605), later expanded in Latin as De Augmentis Scientiarum (1623), and the Novum Organum (1620). Bacon's contribution to philosophy was his application of the inductive method of modern science. He urged full investigation in all cases, avoiding theories based on insufficient data. However, he has been widely censured for being too mechanical, failing to carry his investigations to their logical ends, and not staying abreast of the scientific knowledge of his own day. In the 19th cent., Macaulay initiated a movement to restore Bacon's prestige as a scientist. Today his contributions are regarded with considerable respect. In The New Atlantis (1627) he describes a scientific utopia that found partial realization with the organization of the Royal Society in 1660. Noted for their style and their striking observations about life, his largely aphoristic Essays (1597-1625) are his best-known writings.

See his works (14 vol., 1857-74, repr. 1968); biography by L. Jardine and A. Stewart (1999); studies by J. Weinberger (1985) and P. Urbach (1987); D. W. Davies and E. S. Wrigley, ed., Concordance to the Essays of Francis Bacon (1973).

Bacon, Francis, 1910-92, English painter, b. Dublin. A self-taught artist, Bacon rejected abstraction in painting to explore a repertoire of strange, fractured, and often bizarre figurative images, many replete with homosexual, sadomasochistic, and fetishistic undertones. He became the center of a storm of controversy with his breakthrough painting Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944; Tate Gall., London), which portrayed carcasslike figures on crosses. He painted a series of variations on figural themes, e.g., Van Gogh Goes to Work, Velázquez's Innocent X. Often large in scale, Bacon's works, which frequently use photographs or printed materials as sources for their imagery, focus on shockingly grotesque and brutally satiric themes. From the 1950s—the era of his famously grim screaming popes—onward his images became increasingly distorted and abstract, sometimes merging human and animal forms.

See biographies by J. Russell (1979), A. Sinclair (1993), and M. Peppiatt (rev. ed. 2009); M. Peppiatt, Francis Bacon: Studies for a Portrait: Essays and Interviews (2008); Francis Bacon: A Retrospective (1999); D. Sylvester, Interviews with Francis Bacon (1975, repr. 1988), Francis Bacon: In Conversation with Michel Archimbaud (1993); studies by E. van Alphen (1993), W. Schmied (1996, tr. 2006), D. Sylvester (2000), G. Deleuze (2004), M. Harrison (2005), M. Peppiatt (2006), and R. Chiappini (2008); exhibition catalogs from Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. (1989) and Tate Museum, London, and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ed. by M. Gale and C. Stephens (2008).

Wayland, Francis, 1796-1865, American clergyman and educator, b. New York City, grad. Union College, 1813, and studied at Andover Theological Seminary. As pastor (1821-26) of the First Baptist Church, Boston, he became known for his able preaching. After a brief professorship at Union College, he was president (1827-55) of Brown. He enlarged the scope of the institution through a vigorous program of reforms and was a pioneer in progressive ideas in higher education, such as flexible entrance requirements and elective systems. His founding of a free library at Wayland, Mass., inspired legislation that empowered towns to support public libraries by taxation. After retirement he gave his attention to benevolent works, notably prison reform. His many books include Elements of Moral Science (1835), Elements of Political Economy (1837), and Elements of Intellectual Philosophy (1854). His son Francis Wayland, 1826-1904, b. Boston, grad. Brown, 1846, studied at Harvard law school and was (1873-1903) dean of the Yale law school. A graduate course in law, the first of its kind in America, was established under his auspices.

See biography of the father by the son (2 vol., 1867); study by T. R. Crane (1962).

Keppel, Francis, 1916-90, American educator, b. New York City. A Harvard graduate, Keppel was named dean of Harvard's Graduate School of Education in 1948. There he introduced television into education and created the Master of Arts in Teaching program. As U.S. Commissioner of Education (1962-65) he was instrumental in developing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 and in overseeing enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in the schools. In 1966, he became head of the General Learning Corporation. Keppel later served on the New York City Board of Higher Education (1967-71) and on Harvard's Board of Overseers (1967-73). In 1974 he became founding chairman of the Lincoln Center Institute and director of the education policy program at the Aspen Institute.

(born Sept. 5, 1902, Wahoo, Neb., U.S.—died Dec. 22, 1979, Palm Springs, Calif.) U.S. film producer and executive. He worked as a steelworker, garment factory foreman, and a professional boxer while pursuing his career as a writer, and in 1924 he was hired as a screenwriter for Warner Brothers. After writing scripts for more than 35 movies, he was made a producer. He promoted the conversion to sound by producing The Jazz Singer (1927). In 1933 he cofounded Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon merged with the Fox Film Corp. As the controlling executive of Twentieth Century-Fox, he produced films such as The Grapes of Wrath (1940), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), and Viva Zapata! (1952). He resigned in 1956, but he returned as president in 1962 to effect the company's financial recovery with hits such as The Longest Day (1962), The Sound of Music (1965), and Patton (1970). He retired as chairman in 1971.

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(born May 31, 1863, Murree, India—died July 31, 1942, Lytchett Minster, Dorset, England) British army officer and explorer. He forced the conclusion of the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (1904) that gained Britain long-sought trade concessions. His two initial attempts to negotiate trade and frontier issues with Tibet failed despite British military action; he then marched to Lhasa with British troops and forced the conclusion of a trade treaty, though the Dalai Lama, Tibet's leader, had fled. Seealso amban.

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(born April 7, 1506, Xavier Castle, near Sangüesa, Navarre—died Dec. 3, 1552, Sancian Island, China; canonized March 12, 1622; feast day December 3) Spanish-born French missionary to the Far East. Born into a noble Basque family, he was educated at the University of Paris, where he met Ignatius of Loyola and became one of the first seven members of the Jesuits. He was ordained in 1537, and in 1542 he embarked on a three-year mission to India. In 1545 he established missions in the Malay Archipelago, and in 1549 he traveled to Japan, where he was the first to introduce Christianity systematically. He returned to India in 1551 and died the following year while attempting to secure entrance to China. He is believed to have baptized about 30,000 converts; his success was partly due to adaptation to local cultures. In 1927 he was named patron of all missions.

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(born circa 1532, probably Footscray, Kent, Eng.—died April 6, 1590, London) English statesman and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I (1573–90). A member of Parliament from 1563, he became ambassador to the French court (1570–73) and established friendly relations between France and England. He was admitted to the Privy Council in 1573 and became secretary of state to Elizabeth I. Although not allowed to pursue an independent policy, he faithfully executed Elizabeth's foreign policy. He proved invaluable in uncovering conspiracies by Catholics against Elizabeth's life, including the plots by Francis Throckmorton (1583) and Anthony Babington (1586) to free Mary, Queen of Scots.

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(born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria—died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian-born U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. His experiments proved what had long been suspected: an extremely penetrating radiation of extraterrestrial origin permeates the atmosphere (see cosmic ray). Further investigation of this radiation, named cosmic rays in 1925, led Carl D. Anderson (1905–91) to discover the positron and opened up new fields of research in modern physics. For this work, Hess and Anderson shared a Nobel Prize in 1936.

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(born July 12, 1922, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1956, near Hatfield, Hertfordshire) British architect and cryptographer. At age 14 he heard a lecture on the continuing mystery of Linear B script (see Linear A and Linear B) and resolved to decipher it. In 1952 he determined that Linear B was Greek in its oldest known form, dating from circa 1400–1200 BC. He collaborated with John Chadwick (1920–98) on Documents in Mycenaean Greek (1956), published a few weeks after his own death in an auto accident.

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(born Oct. 29, 1828, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Sept. 28, 1898, Dedham, Mass.) U.S. statesman, diplomat, and lawyer. Born into a prominent political family, he succeeded his father as U.S. senator from Delaware (1869–85). He served as secretary of state (1885–89) and as ambassador to Britain (1893–97), the first U.S. representative to Great Britain to hold that rank. A champion of arbitration, he was critical of the aggressive position of Pres. Grover Cleveland in the dispute with Britain over the Venezuelan boundary (1895).

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(born March 19, 1821, Torquay, Devonshire, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1890, Trieste, Austria-Hungary) English scholar-explorer and Orientalist. Expelled from Oxford in 1842, Burton went to India as a subaltern officer. There he disguised himself as a Muslim and wrote detailed reports of merchant bazaars and urban brothels. He then traveled to Arabia, again disguised as a Muslim, and became the first non-Muslim European to penetrate the forbidden holy cities; he recounted his adventures in Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca (1855–56), a classic account of Muslim life. In 1857–58 he led an expedition with John Hanning Speke in search of the source of the Nile River; stricken with malaria, he turned back after becoming the first European to reach Lake Tanganyika. His travels resulted in a total of 43 accounts of such subjects as Mormons, West African peoples, the Brazilian highlands, Iceland, and Etruscan Bologna. He learned 25 languages and numerous dialects; among his 30 volumes of translations were ancient Eastern manuals on the art of love, and he larded his famous Arabian Nights translation with ethnological footnotes and daring essays that won him many enemies in Victorian society. After his death his wife, Isabel, who was a devout Catholic, burned his 40 years of diaries and journals.

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(born circa 1532, probably Footscray, Kent, Eng.—died April 6, 1590, London) English statesman and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I (1573–90). A member of Parliament from 1563, he became ambassador to the French court (1570–73) and established friendly relations between France and England. He was admitted to the Privy Council in 1573 and became secretary of state to Elizabeth I. Although not allowed to pursue an independent policy, he faithfully executed Elizabeth's foreign policy. He proved invaluable in uncovering conspiracies by Catholics against Elizabeth's life, including the plots by Francis Throckmorton (1583) and Anthony Babington (1586) to free Mary, Queen of Scots.

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Sir Francis Galton, detail of an oil painting by G. Graef, 1882; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Feb. 16, 1822, near Sparkbrook, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Jan. 17, 1911, Grayshott House, Haslemere, Surrey) British explorer, anthropologist, and eugenicist. Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, studied medicine at Cambridge University but never took a degree. As a young man he traveled widely in Europe and Africa, making useful contributions in zoology and geography. He was among the first to recognize the implications of Darwin's theory of evolution, eventually coining the word eugenics to denote the science of planned human betterment through selective mating. His aim was the creation not of an aristocratic elite but of a population consisting entirely of superior men and women. He also wrote important works on human intelligence, fingerprinting, applied statistics, twins, blood transfusions, criminality, meteorology, and measurement.

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(born May 31, 1863, Murree, India—died July 31, 1942, Lytchett Minster, Dorset, England) British army officer and explorer. He forced the conclusion of the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (1904) that gained Britain long-sought trade concessions. His two initial attempts to negotiate trade and frontier issues with Tibet failed despite British military action; he then marched to Lhasa with British troops and forced the conclusion of a trade treaty, though the Dalai Lama, Tibet's leader, had fled. Seealso amban.

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Sir Francis Drake, oil painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born circa 1540–43, Devonshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1596, at sea, off Puerto Bello, Pan.) English admiral, the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan Age. Brought up by his wealthy Hawkins relatives (see John Hawkins) in Plymouth, Drake went to sea at about age 18. He gained a reputation as an outstanding navigator and became wealthy by raiding and plundering Spanish colonies. In 1577 he set sail with five ships, but ultimately only his flagship, the Golden Hind, made its way through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific and up the coast of South and North America. He sailed at least as far north as what is now San Francisco, claiming the area for Elizabeth, and continued westward to the Philippines and around the Cape of Good Hope. Having circumnavigated the globe, he returned to Plymouth, Eng., in 1580 laden with treasure, the first captain ever to sail his own ship around the world. In 1581 he was knighted. Appointed vice admiral (1588), he destroyed ships and supplies destined for the Spanish Armada and delayed the Spanish attack for a year. But he is not known to have played any part in the battle that eventually occurred. In his lifetime, his reputation at home was equivocal, yet his legend grew. On his last voyage he succumbed to fever and was buried at sea.

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(born Jan. 4, 1930, Grand River, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. football coach. He played football for John Carroll University and the Baltimore Colts and other NFL clubs. After coaching collegiate football, he became head coach of the Colts (1963–69); under Shula the team won 71 games, lost 23, and tied 4. As coach of the Miami Dolphins (1970–96), he became the first NFL coach to win 100 games in 10 seasons; in 1972–73 the Dolphins became the first team to go undefeated through an entire season and the play-offs, culminating in a Super Bowl victory. Shula holds the all-time NFL record for victories, with 347.

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orig. Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone

Saint Francis of Assisi, detail of a fresco by Cimabue, late 13th century; in the lower church of elipsis

(born 1181/82, Assisi, duchy of Spoleto—died Oct. 3, 1226, Assisi; canonized July 16, 1228; feast day October 4) Italian saint and founder of the Franciscan religious order. Born into a wealthy family, he was a soldier and prisoner of war before he experienced a conversion in his early 20s. He sold his property, gave the proceeds to the church, and began a life of poverty and devoutness. He soon attracted followers, whom he sent to preach throughout Europe, and in 1209 Innocent III gave approval for the Franciscan order. The Rule of St. Francis stressed the need to imitate the life of Jesus. In many ways a mystic, Francis viewed all nature as a mirror of God, calling all creatures his brothers and sisters. In 1212 he allowed formation of an order for women, called the Poor Clares. In 1219 he went to Egypt, preached to the sultan, and visited the holy places of Jerusalem. In 1224, after a vision, he became the first person to receive the stigmata. His influence helped restore popular faith in a church much corrupted by wealth and political aspirations.

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(born Aug. 21, 1567, Thorens-Glières, Savoy—died Dec. 28, 1622, Lyon; canonized 1665; feast day January 24) Roman Catholic bishop of Geneva and Doctor of the Church. He studied in Paris and at Padua and was ordained in 1593. He was consecrated bishop of Geneva in 1602. In 1610, with St. Jane Frances de Chantal, he founded the Visitation of Holy Mary (the Visitation Nuns), a teaching order. His Introduction to a Devout Life (1609) argued that spiritual perfection is possible for ordinary individuals busy with worldly affairs. He was an active opponent of Calvinism. Pius XI named him patron saint of writers.

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(born April 7, 1506, Xavier Castle, near Sangüesa, Navarre—died Dec. 3, 1552, Sancian Island, China; canonized March 12, 1622; feast day December 3) Spanish-born French missionary to the Far East. Born into a noble Basque family, he was educated at the University of Paris, where he met Ignatius of Loyola and became one of the first seven members of the Jesuits. He was ordained in 1537, and in 1542 he embarked on a three-year mission to India. In 1545 he established missions in the Malay Archipelago, and in 1549 he traveled to Japan, where he was the first to introduce Christianity systematically. He returned to India in 1551 and died the following year while attempting to secure entrance to China. He is believed to have baptized about 30,000 converts; his success was partly due to adaptation to local cultures. In 1927 he was named patron of all missions.

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(born Nov. 20, 1925, Brookline, Mass., U.S.—died June 6, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. politician. The son of Joseph P. Kennedy, he interrupted his education at Harvard University to serve in World War II; he was graduated from Harvard in 1948 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1951. He managed the U.S. Senate campaign of his brother John F. Kennedy in 1952. In 1957 he became chief counsel to the Senate committee investigating labour racketeering; he resigned the post in 1960 to manage his brother's presidential campaign. As U.S. attorney general (1961–64), he led a drive against organized crime that resulted in the conviction of labour leader Jimmy Hoffa. In 1964 he was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York. He became a spokesman for liberal Democrats and a critic of the Vietnam policy of Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968, while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination in Los Angeles, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian immigrant.

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(baptized May 8, 1592, Romford, Essex, Eng.—died Sept. 8, 1644, London) English religious poet. Quarles is remembered for his Emblemes (1635), the most notable of English-language emblem books (collections of symbolic pictures, usually with verse and prose). Its success led him to produce another, Hieroglyphikes of the Life of Man (1638). Printed together in 1639, they formed perhaps the most popular volume of verse of the 17th century. He also wrote Enchiridion (1640), a highly popular book of aphorisms.

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(born Jan. 7, 1899, Paris, Fr.—died Jan. 30, 1963, Paris) French composer. In his teens he studied piano with Ricardo Viñes (1875–1943). Influenced by Erik Satie, Poulenc and five other like-minded young composers became known as Les Six. Poulenc wrote piano compositions, orchestral music, and chamber music, but he is best known for his vocal music, including many admired songs, the operas The Breasts of Tiresias (1944), Dialogues of the Carmelites (1956), and La voix humaine (1958), and such sacred choral works as Mass in G Major (1937), the Stabat Mater (1950), and the Gloria (1959), reflecting his devout Catholicism.

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(born Jan. 22, 1879, Paris, France—died Nov. 30, 1953, Paris) French painter, illustrator, designer, writer, and editor. After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts and the École des Arts Décoratifs, he painted for a time in an Impressionist and then a Cubist style. Picabia went on to combine the Cubist style with Orphic elements in such paintings as I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (1913–14), to which he gave proto-Dadaist names. About 1916 he began to paint the satiric, machinelike contrivances that are his chief contribution to Dadaism. In 1915 in New York City, Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray together founded an American Dadaist movement. In 1917 Picabia returned to Europe and joined Dadaist movements in Barcelona, Paris, and Zürich. After Dadaism broke up about 1921, he followed the poet André Breton into the Surrealist movement. He subsequently painted in Surrealist, abstract, and figurative styles.

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(born Sept. 16, 1823, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 8, 1893, Jamaica Plain, Mass.) U.S. historian. Parkman graduated from Harvard University before embarking in 1846 on a journey to the West that resulted in The California and Oregon Trail (1849). He is noted for his seven-part history France and England in North America, covering the colonial period from the beginnings to 1763; its volumes include Pioneers of France in the New World (1865); Montcalm and Wolfe (1884), which demonstrates how biography can penetrate the spirit of an age; and A Half-Century of Conflict (1892), which exemplifies his literary artistry.

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(born Sept. 28, 1824, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, Eng.—died Oct. 24, 1897, London) English critic and poet. He spent many years in the civil service's education department and taught poetry at Oxford. His Golden Treasury of English Songs and Lyrics (1861), a comprehensive, well-chosen, and carefully arranged lyric anthology, influenced the poetic taste of several generations and was important in popularizing the works of William Wordsworth.

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(born July 12, 1922, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1956, near Hatfield, Hertfordshire) British architect and cryptographer. At age 14 he heard a lecture on the continuing mystery of Linear B script (see Linear A and Linear B) and resolved to decipher it. In 1952 he determined that Linear B was Greek in its oldest known form, dating from circa 1400–1200 BC. He collaborated with John Chadwick (1920–98) on Documents in Mycenaean Greek (1956), published a few weeks after his own death in an auto accident.

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known as The Swamp Fox

(born circa 1732, Winyah, S.C.—died Feb. 26, 1795, Berkeley county, S.C., U.S.) American Revolutionary commander. He fought the Cherokee (1759) and later served as a member of the provincial assembly (1775). In the American Revolution he commanded troops in South Carolina. After the surrender of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln to the British at Charleston, S.C. (1780), he slipped away to the swamps, gathered together his band of guerrillas, and began leading bold raids on British positions. For a daring rescue of American troops surrounded by the British at Parkers Ferry, S.C. (1781), he received the thanks of Congress. He was then appointed a brigadier general.

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(born April 7, 1775, Newburyport, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 10, 1817, Boston) U.S. businessman. Born into a prominent Massachusetts family, Lowell closely studied the British textile industry while visiting Britain. With Paul Moody he devised an efficient power loom and spinning apparatus. His Boston Manufacturing Co. in Waltham (1812–14) was apparently the world's first mill in which were performed all operations converting raw cotton into finished cloth. His example greatly stimulated the growth of New England industry. Lowell, Mass., is named for him.

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(born Aug. 1, 1779, Frederick county, Md., U.S.—died Jan. 11, 1843, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. lawyer, author of “The Star Spangled Banner.” After the burning of Washington, D.C., in the War of 1812 he was sent to secure the release of a friend from a British ship in Chesapeake Bay. He watched the British shelling of Fort McHenry during the night of Sept. 13–14, 1814; when he saw the U.S. flag still flying the next morning, he wrote the poem “Defense of Fort M'Henry.” Published in the Baltimore Patriot, it was later set to the tune of an English drinking song, “To Anacreon in Heaven.” The song was adopted as the U.S. national anthem in 1931.

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(born Nov. 20, 1925, Brookline, Mass., U.S.—died June 6, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. politician. The son of Joseph P. Kennedy, he interrupted his education at Harvard University to serve in World War II; he was graduated from Harvard in 1948 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1951. He managed the U.S. Senate campaign of his brother John F. Kennedy in 1952. In 1957 he became chief counsel to the Senate committee investigating labour racketeering; he resigned the post in 1960 to manage his brother's presidential campaign. As U.S. attorney general (1961–64), he led a drive against organized crime that resulted in the conviction of labour leader Jimmy Hoffa. In 1964 he was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York. He became a spokesman for liberal Democrats and a critic of the Vietnam policy of Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968, while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination in Los Angeles, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian immigrant.

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(born Oct. 2, 1737, Philadelphia, Pa.—died May 9, 1791, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. political leader and writer. After a brief business career, he launched a successful legal practice in New Jersey. He was appointed to the governor's council in 1774, and in 1776 he represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress. He signed the Declaration of Independence, and he later wrote articles that helped win ratification of the U.S. Constitution. He served as judge of the admiralty court for Pennsylvania (1779–89) and as U.S. district judge (1789–91). An accomplished harpsichordist and composer of religious and secular songs, he was also known for his poetry and literary essays and for his design of numerous governmental and organizational seals.

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(born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria—died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian-born U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. His experiments proved what had long been suspected: an extremely penetrating radiation of extraterrestrial origin permeates the atmosphere (see cosmic ray). Further investigation of this radiation, named cosmic rays in 1925, led Carl D. Anderson (1905–91) to discover the positron and opened up new fields of research in modern physics. For this work, Hess and Anderson shared a Nobel Prize in 1936.

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(born June 25, 1887, Forestville, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31, 1995, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. theatre director, producer, and playwright. In 1913 he began acting on Broadway, and he soon turned to writing and directing plays, achieving his first of many hits with The Fall Guy (1925). He also wrote, directed, or produced many popular musicals, including The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), Where's Charley (1948), Wonderful Town (1953), and Damn Yankees (1955). He was active in the theatre into the 1980s, directing a revival of On Your Toes at age 95.

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Sir Francis Galton, detail of an oil painting by G. Graef, 1882; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Feb. 16, 1822, near Sparkbrook, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Jan. 17, 1911, Grayshott House, Haslemere, Surrey) British explorer, anthropologist, and eugenicist. Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, studied medicine at Cambridge University but never took a degree. As a young man he traveled widely in Europe and Africa, making useful contributions in zoology and geography. He was among the first to recognize the implications of Darwin's theory of evolution, eventually coining the word eugenics to denote the science of planned human betterment through selective mating. His aim was the creation not of an aristocratic elite but of a population consisting entirely of superior men and women. He also wrote important works on human intelligence, fingerprinting, applied statistics, twins, blood transfusions, criminality, meteorology, and measurement.

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orig. Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone

Saint Francis of Assisi, detail of a fresco by Cimabue, late 13th century; in the lower church of elipsis

(born 1181/82, Assisi, duchy of Spoleto—died Oct. 3, 1226, Assisi; canonized July 16, 1228; feast day October 4) Italian saint and founder of the Franciscan religious order. Born into a wealthy family, he was a soldier and prisoner of war before he experienced a conversion in his early 20s. He sold his property, gave the proceeds to the church, and began a life of poverty and devoutness. He soon attracted followers, whom he sent to preach throughout Europe, and in 1209 Innocent III gave approval for the Franciscan order. The Rule of St. Francis stressed the need to imitate the life of Jesus. In many ways a mystic, Francis viewed all nature as a mirror of God, calling all creatures his brothers and sisters. In 1212 he allowed formation of an order for women, called the Poor Clares. In 1219 he went to Egypt, preached to the sultan, and visited the holy places of Jerusalem. In 1224, after a vision, he became the first person to receive the stigmata. His influence helped restore popular faith in a church much corrupted by wealth and political aspirations.

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(born Aug. 21, 1567, Thorens-Glières, Savoy—died Dec. 28, 1622, Lyon; canonized 1665; feast day January 24) Roman Catholic bishop of Geneva and Doctor of the Church. He studied in Paris and at Padua and was ordained in 1593. He was consecrated bishop of Geneva in 1602. In 1610, with St. Jane Frances de Chantal, he founded the Visitation of Holy Mary (the Visitation Nuns), a teaching order. His Introduction to a Devout Life (1609) argued that spiritual perfection is possible for ordinary individuals busy with worldly affairs. He was an active opponent of Calvinism. Pius XI named him patron saint of writers.

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(born Sept. 28, 1824, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, Eng.—died Oct. 24, 1897, London) English critic and poet. He spent many years in the civil service's education department and taught poetry at Oxford. His Golden Treasury of English Songs and Lyrics (1861), a comprehensive, well-chosen, and carefully arranged lyric anthology, influenced the poetic taste of several generations and was important in popularizing the works of William Wordsworth.

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F. Scott Fitzgerald

(born Sept. 24, 1896, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.—died Dec. 21, 1940, Hollywood, Calif.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. Fitzgerald attended Princeton University but dropped out with bad grades. In 1920 he married Zelda Sayre (1900–48), daughter of a respected Alabama judge. His works, including the early novels This Side of Paradise (1920) and The Beautiful and Damned (1922) and the story collections Tales of the Jazz Age (1922) and All the Sad Young Men (1926), capture the Jazz Age's vulgarity and dazzling promise. His brilliant The Great Gatsby (1925; film, 1926, 1949, 1974; TV movie 2001), a story of American wealth and corruption, was eventually acclaimed one of the century's greatest novels. In 1924 Scott and Zelda became part of the expatriate community on the French Riviera, the setting of Tender Is the Night (1934; film, 1962). His fame and prosperity proved disorienting to them both, and he became seriously alcoholic. Zelda never fully recovered from a mental breakdown in 1932 and spent most of her remaining years in a sanitarium. In 1937 Scott moved to Hollywood to write film scripts; the experience inspired the unfinished The Last Tycoon (1941; film, 1976). He died of a heart attack at age 44.

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(born Aug. 1, 1779, Frederick county, Md., U.S.—died Jan. 11, 1843, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. lawyer, author of “The Star Spangled Banner.” After the burning of Washington, D.C., in the War of 1812 he was sent to secure the release of a friend from a British ship in Chesapeake Bay. He watched the British shelling of Fort McHenry during the night of Sept. 13–14, 1814; when he saw the U.S. flag still flying the next morning, he wrote the poem “Defense of Fort M'Henry.” Published in the Baltimore Patriot, it was later set to the tune of an English drinking song, “To Anacreon in Heaven.” The song was adopted as the U.S. national anthem in 1931.

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(baptized May 8, 1592, Romford, Essex, Eng.—died Sept. 8, 1644, London) English religious poet. Quarles is remembered for his Emblemes (1635), the most notable of English-language emblem books (collections of symbolic pictures, usually with verse and prose). Its success led him to produce another, Hieroglyphikes of the Life of Man (1638). Printed together in 1639, they formed perhaps the most popular volume of verse of the 17th century. He also wrote Enchiridion (1640), a highly popular book of aphorisms.

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(born Jan. 22, 1879, Paris, France—died Nov. 30, 1953, Paris) French painter, illustrator, designer, writer, and editor. After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts and the École des Arts Décoratifs, he painted for a time in an Impressionist and then a Cubist style. Picabia went on to combine the Cubist style with Orphic elements in such paintings as I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (1913–14), to which he gave proto-Dadaist names. About 1916 he began to paint the satiric, machinelike contrivances that are his chief contribution to Dadaism. In 1915 in New York City, Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray together founded an American Dadaist movement. In 1917 Picabia returned to Europe and joined Dadaist movements in Barcelona, Paris, and Zürich. After Dadaism broke up about 1921, he followed the poet André Breton into the Surrealist movement. He subsequently painted in Surrealist, abstract, and figurative styles.

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(born Sept. 16, 1823, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 8, 1893, Jamaica Plain, Mass.) U.S. historian. Parkman graduated from Harvard University before embarking in 1846 on a journey to the West that resulted in The California and Oregon Trail (1849). He is noted for his seven-part history France and England in North America, covering the colonial period from the beginnings to 1763; its volumes include Pioneers of France in the New World (1865); Montcalm and Wolfe (1884), which demonstrates how biography can penetrate the spirit of an age; and A Half-Century of Conflict (1892), which exemplifies his literary artistry.

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known as The Swamp Fox

(born circa 1732, Winyah, S.C.—died Feb. 26, 1795, Berkeley county, S.C., U.S.) American Revolutionary commander. He fought the Cherokee (1759) and later served as a member of the provincial assembly (1775). In the American Revolution he commanded troops in South Carolina. After the surrender of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln to the British at Charleston, S.C. (1780), he slipped away to the swamps, gathered together his band of guerrillas, and began leading bold raids on British positions. For a daring rescue of American troops surrounded by the British at Parkers Ferry, S.C. (1781), he received the thanks of Congress. He was then appointed a brigadier general.

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German Franz Josef

Francis Joseph, 1908.

(born Aug. 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna—died Nov. 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn) Emperor of Austria (1848–1916) and king of Hungary (1867–1916). He became emperor during the Revolutions of 1848 after the abdication of his uncle, Ferdinand I. With his prime minister, Felix, prince zu Schwarzenberg, he achieved a powerful position for Austria, in particular with the Punctation of Olmütz convention in 1850. His harsh, absolutist rule within Austria produced a strong central government but also led to rioting and an assassination attempt. Following Austria's defeat by Prussia in the Seven Weeks' War (1866), he responded to Hungarian national unrest by accepting the Compromise of 1867. He adhered to the Three Emperors' League and formed an alliance with Prussian-led Germany that led to the Triple Alliance (1882). In 1898 his wife was assassinated, and in 1889 his son Rudolf, his heir apparent, died in a suicide love pact. In 1914 his ultimatum to Serbia following the murder of the next heir presumptive, Francis Ferdinand, led Austria and Germany into World War I.

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(born Jan. 7, 1899, Paris, Fr.—died Jan. 30, 1963, Paris) French composer. In his teens he studied piano with Ricardo Viñes (1875–1943). Influenced by Erik Satie, Poulenc and five other like-minded young composers became known as Les Six. Poulenc wrote piano compositions, orchestral music, and chamber music, but he is best known for his vocal music, including many admired songs, the operas The Breasts of Tiresias (1944), Dialogues of the Carmelites (1956), and La voix humaine (1958), and such sacred choral works as Mass in G Major (1937), the Stabat Mater (1950), and the Gloria (1959), reflecting his devout Catholicism.

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Italian Francesco

(born Jan. 16, 1836, Kingdom of Naples—died Dec. 27, 1894, Arco, Italy) King of the Two Sicilies (1859–60), the last of the Bourbon kings of Naples. He succeeded his father, Ferdinand II, in 1859 and on his accession rejected proposals made by Count Cavour that he join Piedmont-Sardinia in the war against Austria and grant liberal reforms on its conclusion. Alarmed by the invasion of Sicily by Giuseppe de Garibaldi in 1860, Francis capitulated to the liberals in his kingdom and restored the constitution of 1848, granted freedom of the press, and promised new elections. It was too late to save the monarchy, however; the Bourbon forces were defeated by Garibaldi, and less than a month later Francis was deposed by a plebiscite. He then lived in exile in Rome and Paris.

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German Franz

(born Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine—died Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria) Holy Roman emperor (1745–65). The son of the duke of Lorraine, he succeeded to the duchy in 1729 (as Francis Stephen). In 1736 he married Maria Theresa, heiress to Emperor Charles VI, who agreed to the marriage on the condition that Francis cede Lorraine to Stanislaw I of Poland, in compensation for which Francis was granted Tuscany (1737). He served with Maria Theresa as coregent (1740–45) and was elected emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession. He was overshadowed by his wife during his rule but was remembered for his cultural interests.

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(born Oct. 2, 1737, Philadelphia, Pa.—died May 9, 1791, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. political leader and writer. After a brief business career, he launched a successful legal practice in New Jersey. He was appointed to the governor's council in 1774, and in 1776 he represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress. He signed the Declaration of Independence, and he later wrote articles that helped win ratification of the U.S. Constitution. He served as judge of the admiralty court for Pennsylvania (1779–89) and as U.S. district judge (1789–91). An accomplished harpsichordist and composer of religious and secular songs, he was also known for his poetry and literary essays and for his design of numerous governmental and organizational seals.

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(born Jan. 30, 1846, Clapham, Surrey, Eng.—died Sept. 18, 1924, Oxford) British idealist philosopher. Influenced by G.W.F. Hegel, he considered mind to be more fundamental than matter. In Ethical Studies (1876), he sought to expose confusions in utilitarianism. In The Principles of Logic (1883), he denounced the psychology of the empiricists. His most ambitious work, Appearance and Reality (1893), maintained that, though reality is spiritual, the thesis cannot be demonstrated because of the fatally abstract nature of human thought. Instead of ideas, which could not properly contain reality, he recommended feeling, the immediacy of which could embrace the harmonious nature of reality. He was the first English philosopher to be awarded the Order of Merit. His brother was the eminent poetry critic A.C. Bradley (1851–1935).

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(born June 8, 1916, Northampton, Northamptonshire, Eng.—died July 28, 2004, San Diego, Calif., U.S.) British biophysicist. Educated at University College, London, he helped develop magnetic mines for naval use during World War II but returned to biology after the war. He worked at the University of Cambridge with James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins to construct a molecular model of DNA consistent with its physical and chemical properties, work for which the three shared a 1962 Nobel Prize. Crick also discovered that each group of three bases (a codon) on a single DNA strand designates the position of a specific amino acid on the backbone of a protein molecule, and he helped determine which codons code for each amino acid normally found in protein, thus clarifying the way the cell uses DNA to build proteins. Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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(born April 7, 1939, Detroit, Mich., U.S.) U.S. film director, screenwriter, and producer. He worked under Roger Corman before achieving his first success with the low-budget but stylish You're a Big Boy Now (1967). He wrote or cowrote screenplays for several films, including Patton (1970, Academy Award). He won acclaim for writing and directing the Mafia epic The Godfather (1972, Academy Awards for best picture and screenplay). His other films include The Conversation (1974), The Godfather, Part II (1974, Academy Awards for best director, picture, and screenplay), Apocalypse Now (1979), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), The Godfather, Part III (1990), The Rainmaker (1997), and Youth Without Youth (2007).

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German Franz Ferdinand

(born Dec. 18, 1863, Graz, Austria—died June 28, 1914, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) Archduke of Austria, whose assassination was the immediate cause of World War I. Nephew of Emperor Francis Joseph, he became heir apparent in 1896. His desire to marry Sophie, countess von Chotek, a lady-in-waiting, brought him into sharp conflict with the emperor, and the marriage was only allowed after he agreed to renounce his future children's rights to the throne. From 1906 he exerted influence in military matters and became inspector general of the army (1913). While on an official visit in Sarajevo in June 1914, he and his wife were assassinated by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. In July Austria declared war against Serbia, precipitating World War I.

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(born April 7, 1775, Newburyport, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 10, 1817, Boston) U.S. businessman. Born into a prominent Massachusetts family, Lowell closely studied the British textile industry while visiting Britain. With Paul Moody he devised an efficient power loom and spinning apparatus. His Boston Manufacturing Co. in Waltham (1812–14) was apparently the world's first mill in which were performed all operations converting raw cotton into finished cloth. His example greatly stimulated the growth of New England industry. Lowell, Mass., is named for him.

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(born circa 1585, Grace-Dieu, Leicestershire, Eng.—died March 6, 1616, London) British playwright. He is known chiefly for the 10 very popular plays on which he collaborated with John Fletcher (1579–1625) circa 1606–13. These included the tragicomedies The Maides Tragedy, Phylaster, and A King and No King. Forty other plays attributed to them were later found to have been written by others. Their independent work includes Beaumont's poetry and his parody The Knight of the Burning Pestle (1607) and Fletcher's pastoral The Faithful Shepherdess (1608). After Beaumont retired in 1613, Fletcher collaborated with other playwrights, possibly including William Shakespeare, with whom he may have written King Henry the Eighth and The Two Noble Kinsmen.

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(born Oct. 28, 1909, Dublin, Ire.—died April 28, 1992, Madrid, Spain) Irish-British painter. He lived in Berlin and Paris before settling in London (1929) to begin a career as an interior decorator. With no formal art training, he started painting, drawing, and participating in gallery exhibitions, with little success. In 1944 he achieved instant notoriety with a series of controversial paintings, Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. His mature style emerged completely with the series of works known as “The Screaming Popes” (1949–mid-1950s), in which he converted Diego Velázquez's famous Portrait of Pope Innocent X into a nightmarish icon of hysterical terror. Most of Bacon's paintings depict isolated figures, often framed by geometric constructions, and rendered in smeared, violent colours. His imagery typically suggests anger, horror, and degradation.

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Sir Francis Drake, oil painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born circa 1540–43, Devonshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1596, at sea, off Puerto Bello, Pan.) English admiral, the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan Age. Brought up by his wealthy Hawkins relatives (see John Hawkins) in Plymouth, Drake went to sea at about age 18. He gained a reputation as an outstanding navigator and became wealthy by raiding and plundering Spanish colonies. In 1577 he set sail with five ships, but ultimately only his flagship, the Golden Hind, made its way through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific and up the coast of South and North America. He sailed at least as far north as what is now San Francisco, claiming the area for Elizabeth, and continued westward to the Philippines and around the Cape of Good Hope. Having circumnavigated the globe, he returned to Plymouth, Eng., in 1580 laden with treasure, the first captain ever to sail his own ship around the world. In 1581 he was knighted. Appointed vice admiral (1588), he destroyed ships and supplies destined for the Spanish Armada and delayed the Spanish attack for a year. But he is not known to have played any part in the battle that eventually occurred. In his lifetime, his reputation at home was equivocal, yet his legend grew. On his last voyage he succumbed to fever and was buried at sea.

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(born Jan. 4, 1930, Grand River, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. football coach. He played football for John Carroll University and the Baltimore Colts and other NFL clubs. After coaching collegiate football, he became head coach of the Colts (1963–69); under Shula the team won 71 games, lost 23, and tied 4. As coach of the Miami Dolphins (1970–96), he became the first NFL coach to win 100 games in 10 seasons; in 1972–73 the Dolphins became the first team to go undefeated through an entire season and the play-offs, culminating in a Super Bowl victory. Shula holds the all-time NFL record for victories, with 347.

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(born Sept. 5, 1902, Wahoo, Neb., U.S.—died Dec. 22, 1979, Palm Springs, Calif.) U.S. film producer and executive. He worked as a steelworker, garment factory foreman, and a professional boxer while pursuing his career as a writer, and in 1924 he was hired as a screenwriter for Warner Brothers. After writing scripts for more than 35 movies, he was made a producer. He promoted the conversion to sound by producing The Jazz Singer (1927). In 1933 he cofounded Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon merged with the Fox Film Corp. As the controlling executive of Twentieth Century-Fox, he produced films such as The Grapes of Wrath (1940), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), and Viva Zapata! (1952). He resigned in 1956, but he returned as president in 1962 to effect the company's financial recovery with hits such as The Longest Day (1962), The Sound of Music (1965), and Patton (1970). He retired as chairman in 1971.

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(born June 8, 1916, Northampton, Northamptonshire, Eng.—died July 28, 2004, San Diego, Calif., U.S.) British biophysicist. Educated at University College, London, he helped develop magnetic mines for naval use during World War II but returned to biology after the war. He worked at the University of Cambridge with James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins to construct a molecular model of DNA consistent with its physical and chemical properties, work for which the three shared a 1962 Nobel Prize. Crick also discovered that each group of three bases (a codon) on a single DNA strand designates the position of a specific amino acid on the backbone of a protein molecule, and he helped determine which codons code for each amino acid normally found in protein, thus clarifying the way the cell uses DNA to build proteins. Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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(born April 7, 1939, Detroit, Mich., U.S.) U.S. film director, screenwriter, and producer. He worked under Roger Corman before achieving his first success with the low-budget but stylish You're a Big Boy Now (1967). He wrote or cowrote screenplays for several films, including Patton (1970, Academy Award). He won acclaim for writing and directing the Mafia epic The Godfather (1972, Academy Awards for best picture and screenplay). His other films include The Conversation (1974), The Godfather, Part II (1974, Academy Awards for best director, picture, and screenplay), Apocalypse Now (1979), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), The Godfather, Part III (1990), The Rainmaker (1997), and Youth Without Youth (2007).

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Charles Francis Adams

(born Aug. 18, 1807, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1886, Boston) U.S. diplomat. The son of John Quincy Adams and the grandson of John Adams, he served in the Massachusetts legislature and edited a Whig journal. He helped form the antislavery Free-Soil Party and in 1848 was chosen its candidate for U.S. vice president. As ambassador to Britain (1861–68) he was instrumental in securing Britain's neutrality during the American Civil War and in promoting the arbitration of the Alabama claims.

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(born March 19, 1821, Torquay, Devonshire, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1890, Trieste, Austria-Hungary) English scholar-explorer and Orientalist. Expelled from Oxford in 1842, Burton went to India as a subaltern officer. There he disguised himself as a Muslim and wrote detailed reports of merchant bazaars and urban brothels. He then traveled to Arabia, again disguised as a Muslim, and became the first non-Muslim European to penetrate the forbidden holy cities; he recounted his adventures in Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca (1855–56), a classic account of Muslim life. In 1857–58 he led an expedition with John Hanning Speke in search of the source of the Nile River; stricken with malaria, he turned back after becoming the first European to reach Lake Tanganyika. His travels resulted in a total of 43 accounts of such subjects as Mormons, West African peoples, the Brazilian highlands, Iceland, and Etruscan Bologna. He learned 25 languages and numerous dialects; among his 30 volumes of translations were ancient Eastern manuals on the art of love, and he larded his famous Arabian Nights translation with ethnological footnotes and daring essays that won him many enemies in Victorian society. After his death his wife, Isabel, who was a devout Catholic, burned his 40 years of diaries and journals.

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(born Feb. 9, 1923, Dublin, Ire.—died March 20, 1964, Dublin) Irish author. An alcoholic from age eight and an anti-English rebel, he was repeatedly arrested. Borstal Boy (1958) is an account of his detention in an English reform school, which combines earthy satire and powerful political commentary. His first play, The Quare Fellow (1954), is an explosive statement on capital punishment and prison life. His second, The Hostage (produced 1958), is considered his masterwork. He also wrote poetry, short stories, radio scripts, anecdotes, memoirs, and a novel.

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(born Jan. 30, 1846, Clapham, Surrey, Eng.—died Sept. 18, 1924, Oxford) British idealist philosopher. Influenced by G.W.F. Hegel, he considered mind to be more fundamental than matter. In Ethical Studies (1876), he sought to expose confusions in utilitarianism. In The Principles of Logic (1883), he denounced the psychology of the empiricists. His most ambitious work, Appearance and Reality (1893), maintained that, though reality is spiritual, the thesis cannot be demonstrated because of the fatally abstract nature of human thought. Instead of ideas, which could not properly contain reality, he recommended feeling, the immediacy of which could embrace the harmonious nature of reality. He was the first English philosopher to be awarded the Order of Merit. His brother was the eminent poetry critic A.C. Bradley (1851–1935).

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(born Nov. 9, 1874, Geneseo, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 16, 1954, Northampton, Mass.) U.S. botanist and geneticist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. In his dissertation he became the first person to describe sexuality in the lower fungi. His later experimental work focused on higher plants. After a long tenure with the Carnegie Institution's Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (1915–41), he joined the faculty of Smith College, where he published a series of papers on the genetics and cell biology of jimsonweed. He used the alkaloid colchicine to achieve an increase in the number of chromosomes and thus opened up a new field of artificially produced polyploids.

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(born Feb. 9, 1923, Dublin, Ire.—died March 20, 1964, Dublin) Irish author. An alcoholic from age eight and an anti-English rebel, he was repeatedly arrested. Borstal Boy (1958) is an account of his detention in an English reform school, which combines earthy satire and powerful political commentary. His first play, The Quare Fellow (1954), is an explosive statement on capital punishment and prison life. His second, The Hostage (produced 1958), is considered his masterwork. He also wrote poetry, short stories, radio scripts, anecdotes, memoirs, and a novel.

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(born circa 1585, Grace-Dieu, Leicestershire, Eng.—died March 6, 1616, London) British playwright. He is known chiefly for the 10 very popular plays on which he collaborated with John Fletcher (1579–1625) circa 1606–13. These included the tragicomedies The Maides Tragedy, Phylaster, and A King and No King. Forty other plays attributed to them were later found to have been written by others. Their independent work includes Beaumont's poetry and his parody The Knight of the Burning Pestle (1607) and Fletcher's pastoral The Faithful Shepherdess (1608). After Beaumont retired in 1613, Fletcher collaborated with other playwrights, possibly including William Shakespeare, with whom he may have written King Henry the Eighth and The Two Noble Kinsmen.

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(born Oct. 29, 1828, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Sept. 28, 1898, Dedham, Mass.) U.S. statesman, diplomat, and lawyer. Born into a prominent political family, he succeeded his father as U.S. senator from Delaware (1869–85). He served as secretary of state (1885–89) and as ambassador to Britain (1893–97), the first U.S. representative to Great Britain to hold that rank. A champion of arbitration, he was critical of the aggressive position of Pres. Grover Cleveland in the dispute with Britain over the Venezuelan boundary (1895).

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(born Oct. 28, 1909, Dublin, Ire.—died April 28, 1992, Madrid, Spain) Irish-British painter. He lived in Berlin and Paris before settling in London (1929) to begin a career as an interior decorator. With no formal art training, he started painting, drawing, and participating in gallery exhibitions, with little success. In 1944 he achieved instant notoriety with a series of controversial paintings, Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. His mature style emerged completely with the series of works known as “The Screaming Popes” (1949–mid-1950s), in which he converted Diego Velázquez's famous Portrait of Pope Innocent X into a nightmarish icon of hysterical terror. Most of Bacon's paintings depict isolated figures, often framed by geometric constructions, and rendered in smeared, violent colours. His imagery typically suggests anger, horror, and degradation.

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(born Nov. 9, 1874, Geneseo, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 16, 1954, Northampton, Mass.) U.S. botanist and geneticist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. In his dissertation he became the first person to describe sexuality in the lower fungi. His later experimental work focused on higher plants. After a long tenure with the Carnegie Institution's Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (1915–41), he joined the faculty of Smith College, where he published a series of papers on the genetics and cell biology of jimsonweed. He used the alkaloid colchicine to achieve an increase in the number of chromosomes and thus opened up a new field of artificially produced polyploids.

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(born July 23, 1883, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, France—died June 17, 1963, Hartley Wintney, Hampshire, Eng.) British military leader. He served in World War I and later became director of military training (1936–37) and an expert on gunnery. In World War II he began as commander of a corps in France and covered the Dunkirk evacuation. After serving as commander of the British home forces (1940–41), he was promoted to chief of staff (1941–46). He established good relations with the U.S. forces and exercised a strong influence on Allied strategy. He was promoted to field marshal in 1944 and created a viscount in 1946.

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Charles Francis Adams

(born Aug. 18, 1807, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1886, Boston) U.S. diplomat. The son of John Quincy Adams and the grandson of John Adams, he served in the Massachusetts legislature and edited a Whig journal. He helped form the antislavery Free-Soil Party and in 1848 was chosen its candidate for U.S. vice president. As ambassador to Britain (1861–68) he was instrumental in securing Britain's neutrality during the American Civil War and in promoting the arbitration of the Alabama claims.

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(born June 25, 1887, Forestville, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31, 1995, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. theatre director, producer, and playwright. In 1913 he began acting on Broadway, and he soon turned to writing and directing plays, achieving his first of many hits with The Fall Guy (1925). He also wrote, directed, or produced many popular musicals, including The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), Where's Charley (1948), Wonderful Town (1953), and Damn Yankees (1955). He was active in the theatre into the 1980s, directing a revival of On Your Toes at age 95.

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Francis is a town in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 332 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Francis is located at (34.873148, -96.591552). According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.5 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 332 people, 139 households, and 97 families residing in the town. The population density was 567.1 people per square mile (217.3/km²). There were 155 housing units at an average density of 264.8/sq mi (101.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 81.93% White, 12.65% Native American, 0.30% Asian, and 5.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.51% of the population.

There were 139 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the town the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $25,083, and the median income for a family was $26,094. Males had a median income of $25,417 versus $18,393 for females. The per capita income for the town was $12,826. About 13.9% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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