Beginning in April 2004, members of the Iraqi insurgency began taking hostage foreign civilians in Iraq. Since then, they have kidnapped more than 200 foreigners and thousands of Iraqis; among them, 30 foreign hostages have been killed. The motives behind these kidnappings include influencing foreign governments with troops in Iraq and foreign companies with workers there, as well as ransom money and discouraging travel to Iraq. In 2004, executions of captives were often filmed, and several were beheaded. However, the number of videotaped killings has decreased significantly, and now the deaths of hostages are often announced only in a statement. Many hostages remain missing with no clue as to their whereabouts. The US Department of State Hostage Working Group was organized by the US Embassy in Baghdad in the summer of 2004 to monitor hostages in Iraq.
The following is a list of known foreign hostages in Iraq.
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- * John Martinkus, a journalist for SBS Television, was kidnapped on October 16, 2004. He was released on October 18, 2004, after his captors used Google to determine he was not American.
- * Douglas Wood, construction engineer, kidnapped April 30, 2005, and freed June 15, 2005.
- * Georgi Lazov and Ivailo Kepov, two truck drivers, were seized on July 8, 2004, near Mosul. Lazov's beheaded body was found on July 14, 2004; Kepov's on July 22, 2004.
- * Reporter Michal Kubal and cameraman Petr Klíma, of Czech television and Vít Pohanka from Czech Radio were kidnapped on April 11, 2004. They were freed April 16, 2004.
- * Henrik Frandsen was abducted on April 16, 2004, while working on a sewage project, and found dead the next day.
- * Umberto Cupertino, Maurizio Agliana and Salvatore Stefio were captured with security guard Fabrizio Quattrocchi on April 29, 2004. The three were freed June 8, 2004.
- * Simona Pari and Simona Torretta, aid workers for a Bridge to Baghdad, were kidnapped on September 7, 2004. They were freed on September 28, 2004. Italy allegedly paid $5 million dollars in ransom for their release.
- * Giuliana Sgrena, a reporter for Il Manifesto, was kidnapped on February 4, 2005. When she was released on March 4, 2005, her car was shot at by US troops, and Italian agent Nicola Calipari was killed. Italy allegedly paid $6 million dollars in ransom for her release.
- * Fabrizio Quattrocchi, a security guard captured with three others, was reported killed in a video released on April 14, 2004.
- * Enzo Baldoni, a reporter taken hostage in August and shown being killed in a video released on August 26, 2004. His Iraqi driver/translator was killed during the abduction.
- * Salvatore Santoro, a photojournalist, reported kidnapped and killed on December 16, 2004.
- * Iyad Anwar Wali, an Italian-Iraqi businessman, was reported killed on October 2, 2004.
- * Soichiro Koriyama, Noriaki Imai, and Nahoko Takato, Japanese citizens were kidnapped on April 8, 2004, but released on April 16, 2004.
- * Shosei Koda, was confirmed beheaded on October 30, 2004. He had been kidnapped on October 26, 2004.
- * Akihiko Saito, a contractor, was kidnapped after a convoy attack and reported killed on May 28, 2005.
- * Dalibor Lazarevski, Dragan Markovic, and Zoran Naskovski, were kidnapped August 21, 2004, near Baghdad. They worked for Soufan Engineering, which caters to the needs of the US military and its private contractors. On October 22, 2004, the Macedonian government confirmed the three had been killed.
- *Two contractors working for a cleaning company at Basra International Airport were abducted on February 16, 2006. They were released on February 20, 2006.
- * Angelo de la Cruz, a truck driver, was taken hostage on July 7, 2004. De la Cruz was released after the Philippines withdrew their 51 troops in the country on July 20, 2004. His Iraqi bodyguard was killed during the abduction.
- * Roberto Tarongoy, captured on November 1, 2004. He was released eight months later, on June 22, 2005.
- * Jerzy Kos, a contractor kidnapped on June 1, 2004, was freed in an operation on June 8, 2004.
- * Teresa Borcz Khalifa, a Polish aid worker, was kidnapped on October 28, 2004. She was freed on November 20, 2004.
- * Marie Jeanne Ion, Sorin Dumitru Miscoci, and Ovidiu Ohanesian, Journalists, were kidnapped on March 28, 2005 in Baghdad. Their Iraqi-American translator, Mohammad Munaf, also went missing with them. They were released on May 22, 2005. Munaf was accused by the Romanian government of organizing the kidnapping and is being held by American authorities.
- * Kim Sun-il, a translator, was kidnapped on May 30, 2004. He was beheaded in a video released June 22, 2004.
- * Five energy workers from Interenergoservis were kidnapped on April 12, 2004, along with 3 Russians and a man immediately released, all were released the next day with the insurgents apologizing, noting that they did not realise they were Russian and Ukrainian.
- * Gary Teeley, a laundry contractor at an American base outside Nasiriyah, was kidnapped on April 5, 2004. He was freed by his kidnappers on April 11, 2004.
- * James Brandon, a freelance journalist for The Sunday Telegraph, was kidnapped after 30 masked gunmen stormed into his hotel in Basra on August 12, 2004. He was freed on August 13, 2004, by his captors.
- * Phillip Sands, a freelancer reporter, was abducted on December 26, 2005, along with his Iraqi interpreter and Iraqi driver. His abductors were gunmen who planned on using him to get Britain to pull all troops out of Iraq and release all Iraqi prisoners. Phillip was also filmed pleading for his life. However, the tape was never sent to Al Jazeera. On December 31, 2005, Phillip and his two colleagues were rescued by U.S. troops who revealed that no one knew they were missing.
- * Norman Kember, an aid worker for Christian Peacemaker Teams, was kidnapped along with two Canadians and an American on November 27, 2005. He was freed in a Coalition raid March 23 2006. See 2005-2006 Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis.
- * Richard Butler, a journalist working for CBS News, was kidnapped in Basra on February 10, 2008, with his Iraqi interpreter Aqeel Khadhir. The translator was freed on February 13, 2008. Butler was rescued on April 14, 2008 by Iraqi forces.
- * Kenneth Bigley, a civil engineer, who was kidnapped September 16, 2004. The two Americans kidnapped with him were beheaded, and Bigley was beheaded around October 7.
- * Margaret Hassan, the director of CARE International, was kidnapped in Baghdad on October 19, 2004. She was killed in a video released on November 16, 2004.
- * Jason, one of four security contractors kidnapped with Peter Moore, a computer consultant, on May 29, 2008. Jason's captors claimed that he killed himself on May 25, 2008.
- * Peter Moore, a computer consultant, and his four security guards, Alec MacLachlan , Jason , Alan, and Jason , were kidnapped from the Iraqi Finance ministry on May 29, 2007. Three of them, Jason, Peter, and Alan had appeared in videos from November, 2007, February, 2008, and July, 2008. Their captors are thought to be Shia militiamen and have demanded the release of nine militia members in exchange for the british hostages' release. One of the two hostages named Jason apparently killed himself on May 25, 2008.
- * Thomas Hamill, a truck driver, was seized in a deadly convoy attack on April 9, 2004. He was later shown in a video, but escaped on May 1, 2004.
- * Micah Garen, a freelance reporter, was kidnapped on August 13, 2004, near Nasiriyah. He was freed on August 22, 2004. His Iraqi interpreter was also released.
- * Roy Hallums, an employee of a Saudi trading company, was seized on November 1, 2004, in Baghdad. He was shown in a video aired on January 25, 2005. On September 7, 2005, he was freed in an operation by coalition troops.
- * Paul Taggart, a freelance photographer, was kidnapped on October 10, 2004. He was released on October 12, 2004, after pleas from Muqtada Al Sadr.
- * Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Boston-based Christian Science Monitor, was kidnapped in West Baghdad on the January 7, 2006, by unknown gunmen. Her Iraqi interpreter was killed during the kidnapping. Her driver escaped. Her kidnappers demanded the release of all female Iraqi prisoners. She was shown in four videos during her captivity. She was released on March 30, 2006.
- * Nick Berg, a businessman went missing on April 9, 2004. His widely-publicized beheading was shown in a video May 11, 2004. His body had been found the day before.
- * William Bradley, a contractor for Halliburton, went missing on April 9 2004, along with Keith Matthew Maupin and Timothy Bell. William's body was found on January 7, 2005, near the site of his disappearance. It is unknown if he was kidnapped or simply died and was buried by insurgents. Maupin's body was found in 2008. Bell is still missing and presumed dead.
- * Eugene Armstrong, a contractor, was kidnapped on September 16, 2004. He was beheaded on September 20.
- * Jack Hensley, a contractor, was kidnapped with Armstrong. He was beheaded September 21, 2004.
- * Ronald Alan Schulz, a security consultant, was reported kidnapped on December 6, 2005. On December 19, 2005, the Islamic Army issued a video showing Schulz's killing in which he is shot in the head after the U.S failed to give in to their demands regarding the release of Iraqi prisoners.
- * Tom Fox, an aid worker working for Christian Peacemaker Teams, was reported kidnapped on November 27, 2005, along with two Canadians and a Briton. His tortured body was found in a trash heap on March 10, 2006. See 2005-2006 Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis.
- *John Roy Young, Joshua Mark Munns, Paul Christopher Johnson-Reuben, and Jonathon Michael Cote, four security contractors, were kidnapped with an Austrian named Bert Nussbaumer on November 16, 2006. They appeared in two hostage videos released in December 2006 and January 2007 which they pleaded to the U.S. to withdraw troops from Iraq and to free all Iraqi prisoners and also stated that they were being treated well. The bodies of John, Bert, Joshua and Paul were recovered in March 2008. Jonathon's body was recovered in April 2008. All were beaten to death.
- *Ronald Withrow, a contractor, was kidnapped along with his Iraqi translator and his Iraqi driver on January 5, 2007. The two Iraqis were found dead the next day. One of Withrow's fingers was sent to the U.S. government in February 2008. His body was recovered in March 2008. He was beaten to death.
- * Kirk von Ackermann, disappeared on October 9, 2003 after leaving a meeting at FOB Pacesetter. His vehicle was found abandoned later that same day. He is presumed dead.
- * Timothy Bell, a contractor for Halliburton, went missing on April 9, 2004, along with Keith Matthew Maupin and William Bradley. He was never shown in a hostage video and is presumed dead.
- * Aban Elias, an Iraqi-American engineer from Denver, was shown being held hostage in a video on May 3, 2004. He has not been seen or heard from since.
- * Radim Sadeq Mohammed Sadeq, also called "Dean Sadek", a businessman kidnapped on November 2, 2004, in Baghdad. He was shown in a video that month and in another video dated Christmas Eve but released in late January on NBC. His kidnappers demanded the release of all Iraqi prisoners. He has not been seen or heard from since.
- * Jeffrey Ake, a contractor, was kidnapped on April 11, 2005, and shown in a videotape two days later. He hasn't been seen or heard from since. His kidnappers contacted Jeffrey's wife on the day he was kidnapped and demanded $1 million dollars in exchange for Jeffrey's release. After three weeks of negotiations, the kidnappers ceased communications.
- * Ali Balarousi, Algerian Chargé d'affaires, and Azzedin Belkadi, Algerian diplomatic attache, were kidnapped along with their driver on July 21, 2005 in Baghdad. The Algerian government, on July 27, 2005, said they had been killed.
- * Bert Nussbaumer, a contractor, was kidnapped along with four Americans on November 16, 2006. They appeared in two hostage videos released in December 2006 and January 2007 which they pleaded to the U.S. to withdraw troops from Iraq and to free all Iraqi prisoners and also stated that they were being treated well. One of Bert's fingers was sent to the U.S. government in February 2008. Three of the Americans and Bert were found dead in March 2008. The other American was found dead in April 2008. All were beaten to death.
- * Abul Kashem, a truck driver, was kidnapped on October 28, 2004, as he ferried supplies to Kuwait. He was freed on December 10, 2004.
- * João José Vasconcelos, an engineer, was kidnapped on January 19, 2005, in an ambush on the Baghdad Airport road. His body was found more than two years after his kidnapping. It is believed that he died from injuries sustained in the abduction shortly after arriving at the house where his captors planned to hold him.
- * Fadi Ihsan Fadel, a Syrian-Canadian employed by the International Rescue Committee, was taken hostage in Najaf on April 8, 2004 but released on April 16, 2004.
- * Naji al-Kuwaiti, was taken hostage on April 28, 2004, and released on May 4, 2004.
- * Fairuz Yamucky was abducted on September 6, 2004, but rescued by a US National Guard unit sixteen days later.
- * Scott Taylor, was a journalist abducted by Ansar al-Islam in Tal Afar on September 9, 2004. He was released five days later.
- * James Loney and Harmeet Singh Sooden, aid workers with Christian Peacemaker Teams, were kidnapped in Baghdad on November 27, 2005, along with an American and Briton. They were freed in a coalition raid on March 23, 2006. See 2005-2006 Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis.
- * Zaid Meerwali, who held dual Canadian-Iraqi citizenship, was seized August 2, 2005, and $250,000 in ransom was demanded. Officials in Canada said, that on August 15, 2005, he had been shot in the head while the family was preparing the ransom money.
- * Rifat Mohammed Rifat, an Iraqi-born prison worker, he was taken hostage on April 8, 2004. He is still missing.
- * Seven workers were abducted on April 11, 2004, but were released on April 13, 2004.
- * Eight unemployed construction workers were kidnapped by al-Numan Brigades on January 18, 2005, as they tried to leave the country. They were released four days later. The group included three teenagers.
- * Garabet Jean Jekerjian, a man with dual Lebanese-Cypriot citizenship, was abducted in August 2005. He was released on December 31, 2005, in exchange for $200,000 ransom.
- * Mohammed Ali Sanad, a truck driver, was seized with three Indians and three Kenyans on July 22, 2004. He was released on September 1, 2004.
- * Mohamed Mamdouh Qutb, a diplomat, was seized in Baghdad on July 23, 2004. He was freed on July 26, 2004.
- * At least two workers for Orascom, a mobile phone company, were kidnapped on September 24, 2004, but freed on September 28, 2004.
- * Four Egyptians working for a mobile phone company were kidnapped on February 6, 2005. They were freed the next day by US forces.
- * Nabil Tawfiq Sulieman and Matwali Mohammed Qassem, Egyptian engineers for the firm Unitrak, were abducted on a road west of Baghdad, a video on an Islamic website said on March 19, 2005. They were released a day later although the Associated Press and Reuters did not bother to report their release.
- * Mohammed Mutawalli, a purported "Egypt spy", was beheaded in a video on August 10, 2004.
- * Nasser Juma, a contractor's body was found on September 5, 2004.
- * Ihab al-Sherif, Egyptian envoy to Baghdad, captured on July 3, 2005, and reported killed on July 7, 2005.
- * Samuel Dwara, an engineer working for Iraqna Mobile Company, was kidnapped on September 26, 2005, in Baghdad.
- * Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot, two reporters, were kidnapped August 21, 2004. They were released December 21. France allegedly paid $15 million dollars in ransom for their release.
- * Florence Aubenas, a reporter for the daily Libération. She disappeared January 5, 2005 but was released with her Iraqi assistant, Hussein Hanoun al-Saadi, on June 11. France allegedly paid $10 million dollars in ransom for her release.
- * Bernard Planche, a water engineer, was kidnapped in Mansour on December 5, 2005. He was freed on January 7, 2006, when his captors fled the house where they were holding him during a military operation.
- * Susanne Osthoff, an archaeologist, was kidnapped along with her Iraqi driver on November 25, 2005, according to the German Foreign Ministry. They were released on December 18, 2005, after Germany allegedly paid the kidnappers $5 million dollars ransom. It is also speculated that Germany released Mohammed Ali Hammadi in exchange for Osthoff's release.
- *Thomas Nitzschke and Rene Braeunlich, two engineers, were kidnapped by gunmen near Baiji on January 24, 2006. They appeared in four videos and their kidnappers demanded that Germany end its cooperation with the Iraqi regime, close its mission in Baghdad, ensure that all German businesses cease dealings there, and the release of all Iraqi prisoners held by US forces. On May 2, 2006, the German government announced the two had been freed. Germany allegedly paid $5 million dollars ransom for their release.
- *Hannelore Krause, worked for the Austrian embassy in Baghdad, was kidnapped on February 6, 2007, with her son Sinan in Baghdad. She was shown in three videos during her captivity. Hannelore was released on July 11, 2007.
- *Sinan Krause, a technician at the Iraqi Foreign Ministry, was kidnapped on February 6, 2007, with his mother Hannelore in Baghdad. Their kidnappers demanded that Germany withdraw its troops from Afghanistan. Hannelore was released on July 10, 2007, but Sinan Krause hasn't been seen or heard from since a video was released on September 11, 2007. The video was recorded before Hannelore was released. It showed Sinan saying goodbye to his mother. On April 24, 2008, his father appealed to the captors to release his son. Sinan's captors ignored the plea.
- * Antaryami, Sukhdev Singh, and Tilak Raj were truck drivers seized July 22, 2004, with an Egyptian and three Kenyans. They were released September 1, 2004.
- *Istiqomah binti Misnad and Casingkem binti Aspin, two female workers of an electricity firm were kidnapped along with six Iraqis and two Lebanese in late September 2004. They appeared in a video broadcasted on Al-Jazzera on September 30, 2004. They appeared in a video broadcast on Al-Jazeera on September 30. The Islamic Army demanded that Indonesia free Abu Bakar Bashir in exchange for the release of the two women. Bashir refused to be released for the two Indonesian women and Indonesia also said it would not free him. The Islamic Army also demanded that the Lebanese government withdraw all nationals working in Iraq for the release of the two Lebanese men. The women were released on October 4, 2004. The six Iraqis were freed later that month after they "repented" working for the Americans and the two Lebanese were freed for ransom in November, 2004.
- *Meutya Hafid, a reporter, and Budiyanto, a cameraman, were kidnapped February 15, 2005. They were freed on February 21, 2005. Their Jordanian driver was also released.
- * Fereidoun Jahani, an Iranian diplomat, was kidnapped near Karbala on August 4, 2004. He was released on September 27, 2004.
- * Six Iranian pilgrims and their Iraqi guide were kidnapped on November 28, 2005. Their Iraqi driver was wounded but was not abducted. The Iraqi guide and two of the Iranian pilgrims (all women) were released a day later. The four male hostages were shown in a video on December 11, 2005. They were released on February 10, 2006.
- *Rory Carroll, a journalist for the British newspaper The Guardian, was abducted on October 19, 2005, in Baghdad and released the next day.
- * Nabil Razouk, an Israeli Arab from East Jerusalem working for the US company Research Triangle International, was kidnapped April 8, 2004. He was freed on April 22, 2004, after pleas from his family and Palestinians.
- * Ibrahim al-Maharmeh, a businessman, was kidnapped in Baghdad on March 5, 2005. He was released on March 8, 2005, after a ransom was paid.
- *Mahmoud Suleiman Saidat, a driver for the Jordanian embassy in Baghdad, was kidnapped on December 20, 2006 . He was later shown on a videotape calling for the release of failed suicide bomber Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi. He was released on February 21, 2006.
- * Faiz Khamis Salim, Jalal Mohamed Awadh, and Ibrahim Khamis Idd were kidnapped on July 22, 2004, with 3 Indians and an Egyptian. They were freed September 1, 2004.
- * Moses Munyau and George Noballa, engineers from the Iraqna telephone company, were reported kidnapped after an ambush on January 18, 2006.
- * Mohammed Hamad, was kidnapped when he was seven years old on October 22, 2004, after being lured into a car by his captors while he was walking home from school. His captors told him his father was hurt in a car accident. His kidnappers told his father they would behead his son unless they were paid $150,000. They eventually lowered their demand to $70,000 and then lowered it again to $1,725. The $1,725 ransom was paid and Mohammed was released on October 29, 2004. He is the youngest child known to been kidnapped in Iraq.
- * Marwan Ibrahim al-Qassar and Mohammed Jawdat Hussein were kidnapped by the Islamic Army in Iraq in late on in September 2004 along with six Iraqis and two Indonesian women. They appeared in a video broadcast on Al-Jazeera on September 30, 2004. The Islamic Army demanded that Indonesia free Abu Bakar Bashir in exchange for the release of the two women. Bashir refused to be released for the two Indonesian women and Indonesia also said it would not free him. The Islamic Army also demanded that the Lebanese government withdraw all nationals working in Iraq for the release of the two Lebanese men. The Iraqis and the two Indonesian women were freed in October 2004. Marwan and Mohammed were freed for ransom in November 2004.
- * Badri Ghazi Abu Hamzah, a businessman. Lebanese media quoted his family as saying he was seized on the road to Tikrit on November 6, 2004.
- * Driver Abderrahim Boualam and assistant Abdelkrim El Mouhafidim, both workers at the Moroccan embassy in Baghdad, went missing on October 20, 2005 while driving back from Jordan. On October 25, 2005, militants claimed their kidnapping. On November 3, 2005, Al Qaeda in Iraq said in an internet statement that it had decided to kill the two hostages. Ziad Khalaf Raja al-Karbouly later confessed to having arranged the kidnappings. He stated that two Kurds were kidnapped with the Moroccans and were later executed.
- * Inus Dewari was kidnapped November 1, 2004, in Baghdad. He was released on November 6, 2004.
- * Gyanendra Shrestha, Manoj Kumar Thakur, Rajendra Kumar Shrestha, Jit Bahadur Thapa, Budha Kumar Shas, Ramesh Khadka, Mangal Bahadur Limbu, Sanjaya Kumar Thakur, Lalan Sing Koirala, Chhok Bahadur Thapa, Prakash Adhikari, and Bishnu Hari Thapa, were twelve Nepalese taken hostage on August 23, 2004. A video from August 31, 2004, showed the beheading of one and the shooting in the head of the eleven others.
- * Rami Daas, a 26 year-old Palestinian student, was reported kidnapped by his family on May 9, 2005, by gunmen in the northern city of Mosul. His fate is unknown.
- * Amjad Hafeez, a driver, was kidnapped on June 25, 2004. He was freed on July 2, 2004.
- * An embassy worker was abducted on April 25, 2005, but released two weeks later.
- * Eleven construction workers were kidnapped from their bus near Nasiriyah on August 13, 2005. They were released August 22, 2005.
- * Azad Hussein Khan, and Sajjad Naeem, truck drivers, were kidnapped on July 23, 2004, and killed. Their captors demanded their Kuwaiti company leave Iraq. In a video released on July 29, 2004, their bodies were shown. An Iraqi driver kidnapped with them was released.
- * Mohammed Shafique Aslam, truck driver, missing since April 10, 2006, when the convoy he was travelling with was attacked near Fallujah.
- * Three energy workers, working for the Interenergoservis, were kidnapped April 12, 2004, along with five Ukrainians and a man immediately released, all were released the next day with the insurgents apologizing, noting that they did not realise they were Russian and Ukrainian.
- * Andrei Meshcheryakov and Aleksandr Gordiyenko, employees of Interenergoservis, were kidnapped on May 10, 2004, but released on May 17, 2004.
- *Fyodor Zaitsev, third secretary of the Russian Embassy in Iraq, and embassy employees Rinat Agliulin, Anatoly Smirnov and Oleg Fedoseyev were abducted after an ambush in Baghdad on June 3, 2006. Another diplomat, Vitaly Titov, was shot and killed. A group claimed to have executed them on June 21, 2006, and a video released on June 25, 2006, confirmed their deaths. The kidnapper group gave 48 hours to Putin administration to pull out his troops from Chechnya.
- *Two Swiss nationals, a married couple who worked for a NGO, were kidnapped on April 20, 2004, by an unknown group. They were held hostage for 48 hours and released on April 22, 2004, after relatives of the kidnappers from the Obaida tribe promised to pressure Yemeni authorities. Some reports listed the couple as tourists.
- * Ali Ahmed Mousa, a truck driver, was taken hostage on July 29, 2004, in order to convince his Kuwaiti employer to withdraw from Iraq. He was released several days later.
- *Andre Durant, Callie Scheepers, Hardus Greeff and Johann Eslin, four contractors, were abducted at a bogus roadblock in Baghdad by unidentified men on December 10, 2006, along with five Iraqis. The Iraqis were released two days later. The kidnappers demanded $8 million ransom. Ten days after the abduction, Andre spoke to his wife briefly in a "proof of life" phone call. There were some talks that these four were still alive in January 2007, but since then there has been no word on their fate.
- * Dinesh Dharmendran Rajaratnam, a truck driver, was kidnapped on October 28, 2004, while ferrying supplies to Kuwait. He was released on December 10, 2004.
- * Noureddin Zakaria, a translator, was kidnapped on October 30, 2004, in Ramadi. He was released on November 6, 2004.
- *Five Sudanese, including the second secretary at the Sudanese embassy, were abducted in Baghdad on December 23, 2005. They were released on December 31, 2005, after Sudan closed its embassy in Baghdad.
- * Mohammed Haroun Hamad, a truck driver, was kidnapped along with his colleague Maher Ataya sometime in March 2005. The Islamic army claimed responsibility in a statement and internet video for the abductions on March 9. The group claimed that a Sharia Council would decide their fates. On April 6, 2005, a second video announced that the Sharia Council decided to release Mohammed and Maher afer they "repented" working for the Americans.
- * Ulf Hjertstrom, an oil broker, was taken hostage on March 25, 2005. He was released on May 30, 2005.
- * Mohammed al-Joundi, the driver for Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot, was kidnapped on August 21, 2004. He was freed by US troops in Fallujah on November 12, 2004.
- * Abdulkadir Tanrikulu, a businessman, abducted by gunmen from the Bakhan Hotel in Baghdad on January 13, 2005. He was freed on June 29, 2005.
- * Ali Musluoglu, a businessman, Kidnapped in Baghdad on May 19, 2005. He was released on September 20, 2005, in exchange for a $250,000 ransom.
- * Aytullah Gezmen, a truck driver, was kidnapped in Iraq on July 31, 2004, along with his colleague Murat Yuce. Murat was executed on August 16, 2004. Aytullah was released a month later after he "repented" working for the Americans.
- * Hasan Eskimutlu, a technician, was kidnapped on June 14, 2006, along with his translator. His captors sent a video to Aljazeera in which they demanded the Turkish government withdraw it's ambassador from Baghdad and that they put pressure on the Iraqi government to free male and female prisoners from U.S and Iraqi prisons. They were freed on August 2, 2006.
- * Dursun Ali Yildirim Tek, a truck driver, was kidnapped on July 23, 2006. Two videos were broadcast on the internet in which his captors demanded the Turkish government end all cooperation with Iraq and that they shut down the company Tek worked for. In the second video, a 72 hour deadline was issued in which Turkey had to give in to the captors' demands or Tek would be executed. He was killed sometime in October after the deadline passed and his body was found near Baghdad's Airport. His body was identified a month and a half later.
- * Murat Yuce, a truck driver, was kidnapped in Iraq along with his colleague Aytullah Gezmen in late July 2004. A video showing Abu Ayyub al-Masri shooting Yuce in the head was posted on a web site on August 2, 2004. Aytullah was released a month later after he "repented" working for the Americans.
- * Maher Kemal, a contractor, was reported beheaded on October 11, 2004.
- *Naji Rashid al-Nuaimi, the first secretary of the UAE's embassy in Baghdad, was abducted by gunmen on May 16, 2006. His captors demanded the UAE abandon its presence in Iraq. Nuaimi was freed on May 30, 2006. His Sudanese driver/bodyguard was wounded and later died of his wounds.